Glossary of Terms

! A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


16-bit environment

An operating system that uses 16-bit segmented addressing. Examples are DOS and Windows 3.x.

See also 32-bit environment.

32-bit environment

An operating system that uses 32-bit flat addressing. Examples are Windows 95 and Windows NT.

See also 16-bit environment.


abstract class

A class which does not act as a creator of instance objects. Abstract classes implement behavior for their subclasses.

accelerator key

See keyboard shortcut.


A defined task that an application performs on an object. You request actions by selecting menu choices, pressing buttons or directly manipulating objects.

See also graphical object.

Active Server Pages (ASP)

A mechanism in some Web servers, enabling Web pages to contain server-side scripts. Such a page, when requested by a browser, is executed by the Web server instead of simply being sent. The scripts should be written to generate valid HTML. The Web server then sends the page to the browser, with the scripts replaced by the generated HTML.

See ASP page.

The scripts can be written in any scripting language supported by the ASP engine in the Web server. The most popular is VBScript, which has a syntax resembling a simplified Visual Basic. Another is JScript. The version of JScript in Netscape Web servers is called JavaScript. (Despite a superficial similarity in syntax, JScript and JavaScript have no connection whatever with the Java programming language.)

Since Active Server Pages is the name of a facility, the term is singular.

ASP and JavaServer Pages (JSP)and can be regarded as equivalent facilities, with ASP being the "Microsoft-world" one and JSP the "Java-world" one.

active window

The window that can currently receive input from the keyboard, distinguished by an emphasized title bar and border.

See also current object.


In effect, a synonym for Component Object Model (COM)

ActiveX control

A name for OLE controls, replacing the former term OCX control. ActiveX controls can additionally be downloaded over an intranet or the Internet, and viewed in an ActiveX enabled Web browser, such as Internet Explorer 4.0 or above.

See OLE control.

ActiveX layout form

A form, for display in a Web browser, which uses the Microsoft ActiveX layout control. You can place the controls anywhere on an ActiveX layout form, and your form will appear in a Web browser exactly as intended. This contrasts with a traditional HTML form, where the final appearance of your form is determined by the way a Web browser interprets HTML markup.

ActiveX layout forms can only be displayed by ActiveX-enabled Web browsers, such as Internet Explorer 4.0 or above.


The run-time support module that executes the code generated from the Enhanced ACCEPT/DISPLAY syntax available in this COBOL system.

See also Enhanced ACCEPT/DISPLAY.

ANSI'74, ANSI'85

Abbreviations referring to the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standards covering the COBOL language. ANSI'74 is the American National Standard X3.23-1974, and ANSI'85 is the ANS X3.23-1985.


See Application Programming Interface (API)

API function calls

Calls to public entry points within a program - such as the Windows operating system - made according to a documented call interface. The calls can be made from any compatible programming language, including this COBOL system.


A component that typically executes in a Web browser, but can execute in a variety of other applications or devices that support the applet programming model.


A set of programs and subprograms which are invoked from a single command.

application container

A version of the run-time system modified to run in a special Enterprise Server mode.

application-managed service

A service in which the COBOL application manages its own transactions: the application issues its own COMMITs, ROLLBACKS etc.

Application Programming Interface (API)

A set of documented function calls implemented within a program - such as an operating system - that can be called by other programs to enable them to use common services.

application server

1. An environment for deploying software componentssuch as EJB components so they will be loaded and run in response to requests from clientapplications. Normally handles administrative matters such as security and scalability automatically, so programmers writing components can concentrate on writing just business logic.

Microsoft Transaction System (MTS)runningCOM objects, and an application server running EJB components, can be regarded as similar facilities, with MTS being the "Microsoft-world" one and application servers the "Java-world" one.

2. In Micro Focus usage only, the set of files supplied with Net Express that our customer is allowed to ship on to his/her customers. This usage was established in Micro Focus before the other meaning of the term became common.


Abbreviation for American Standard Code for Information Interchange, the code used for storing text in microcomputers. Each character is stored in one byte. There are two forms: standard and extended. In the standard form, seven bits are used, and 128 different characters are represented. This COBOL system uses the extended form, in which all eight bits are used and 256 different characters are represented.


See Active Server Pages (ASP).

ASP page

A Web page with the extension .asp, which is recognized by the Web server as meaning it contains scripts for execution by the ASP engine in the Web server.

See Active Server Pages (ASP)



See Business-to-Business (B2B).


The root class of the OO COBOL Class Library. All other OO COBOL programs supplied with this system inherit their fundamental behavior from Base.


The main part of a file-name, that is, the name excluding the path, extension and separators such as "\" and ".".

binary protocol

A Micro Focus protocol for passing information between a J2EE connector and a service.


See binary protocol.


A fixed-size graphic such as those used for toolbar buttons, icons, or mouse pointers.

bitmap object

A Dialog System object used mainly for decoration, to draw attention to buttons or to place items such as logos in a window or dialog box.


The current thread stops execution until some condition is satisfied. This condition varies; for example, in the case of an event, the event is posted, in the case of a mutex, the mutex is acquired, in the case of a monitor, the request privilege on the monitor can be acquired.


A user-defined index entry in an on-line help file. You set a bookmark at any point in any topic and give it a name. This is then stored, in alphabetic order, in a list of bookmarks. Bookmarks are retained between executions of the On-line Help Builder. Accessing a defined bookmark from an alphabetically ordered list immediately displays the topic it is attached to. It is useful to attach bookmarks to frequently accessed topics. However, they can also be used as a temporary means of marking your place while you go off and browse other topics.


A visual indication of the boundaries of an object such as a window or a push button.

See also sizable border.


The limits of a table or array. The BOUND directive determines if compiled code will allow bounds to be exceeded.


A point in a program where execution will pause when you are animating it; you set breakpoints in the debugger.

browse chain

A sequence of topics that the author of an on-line help file has chained together. The chain can be browsed forward and backward by the user. Use this facility to connect together topics of a similar subject. If no browse chains are defined, the whole on-line help file becomes a browse chain, with each topic chained to the physically preceding and following topics.


A thread that can both read and write data. During a read operation, a browser needs to allow other threads to read the data. If the browser writes data, other threads must be disallowed access to the data.


A program used to view material prepared for the World Wide Web. Browsers are able to interpret URL's and HTML markup, and also understand several Internet protocols.

buddy window

An edit field that is associated with an up/down control and is used to display the current value set in the control. The buddy window receives messages directly from the up/down control.


The process of converting source code to executable code. Typically, building an application might involve preprocessing header files, syntax checking and compiling the source code, and linking the resulting object code to produce a system executable file.

Business-to-Business (B2B)

Remote communication between applications running on different companies' computers, where one company is a customer or partner of the other. Often suggested as an area where Web Services might be useful.


A control you can use to start an action or select behavior. Examples are check boxes, pushbuttons, radio buttons and spin buttons.

See also control and pushbutton.

button bar

A set of pushbuttons labeled with text representing application commands.

See also pushbutton.



An object oriented programming language.

call prototype

A definition of the syntax of a CALL statement using placeholders instead of real parameters. Call prototypes are used in header and copyfiles to enable the Compiler to check that CALL statements in your code conform to the specified syntax, and to raise an error message if they do not.

Callable File Handler

The Callable File Handler is a module in the COBOL system that processes index, sequential and relative files. As a defined API is available to this module, it is called the Callable File Handler as it can be called directly from any program (not only those written in COBOL).


An object of class CallBack stores a reference to an object and the name of a method implemented by that object. When the CallBack object is sent the "invoke" message, it executes the named method in the object it has stored.

calling program

The COBOL program that calls Dialog System using the screenset as the user interface.

cascading style-sheet

An addition the HTML standard which enables presentation information to be separated from structure in an HTML document. Styles can be attached to HTML elements, through a STYLE attribute on an individual element, a <STYLE>...</STYLE> block which names element types in the head of an HTML document, or through separate .css files. Styles can also be defined as classes in a .css file or <STYLE>...</STYLE> block, and attached to elements through the CLASS attribute.

Stylesheets cascade through a system of precedence, whereby styles in .css files have the lowest precedence, and those declared in a STYLE attribute have the highest.


A simplified linking utility with a command-line interface. You can use Cbllink to compile and link in one step.


A linking utility that you must run before you use the Linker. Cblnames extracts all public symbols from a list of .obj files passed to it and creates another file (cbllds.obj) which must then be linked with your .obj files.


EitherCommon Communications Interface, a Micro Focus technology or Common Client Interface, a Sun technology for J2EE.


The CCITCP2 process is a registration program which is needed in order to make CCITCP connections. The process runs in background mode. Only a single CCITCP2 process needs to be active on a network in order for CCITCP to work.

character graphics

When creating a topic in an on-line help file, pictures can be created from the standard characters available. These are called character graphics. In order to maintain the vertical alignment of these graphics the lines are blocked together using the :cgraphic and :ecgraphic tags. The access and display programs ensure that the vertical alignment is maintained when a character graphic block is displayed, by specifying a monospaced font for those lines.


An instance of the class CharacterArray. A CharacterArray is an object which contains a string of any length. CharacterArrays are a convenient way of passing strings as parameters when sending messages or making CALLs.

See also messages.

check box

A square box with associated text that represents a choice. When selected, it is marked with a checkmark. You deselect it by repeating the action that selected it, for example, by clicking on it again. Check boxes are used for a set of choices that are not mutually exclusive.

check phase

The first phase of compilation, which checks the syntax of your COBOL source program and produces intermediate code.

See also intermediate code.


The two phases of compilation are sometimes treated as if they were two separate compilers. The first phase of compilation is thus sometimes called the Checker.

See also check phase.


A character (checkmark) used to indicate that a checkmark choice is turned on. Absence of the checkmark means the option is off.

See also toggle and checkmark choice.

checkmark choice

A choice in a menu which has two states, on or off. Clicking on the option turns the checkmark on and off, toggling between the two states.


A run unit created by another run unit.

child window

A window whose parent is another window, not the desktop. In Microsoft Windows, child windows are restricted in their properties and attributes. In Dialog System, child windows are called secondary windows.


Graphics or text that a user can select to modify or manipulate an object. Choices appear on menus (also called menu items) and buttons.


Pressing both mouse buttons simultaneously.


See Customer Information Control System.


An OO COBOL program which contains the code and data descriptions for a class object and its instance objects. It is also known as the class program. A class consists of nested COBOL programs, which correspond to class object and instance object methods. Each class starts with an identifier naming the class and the class from which it inherits. When a class is loaded at run-time, the OO run-time system creates the class object.

Class-Control paragraph

Lists all the classes the program is going to use. The Class-Control paragraph is part of the Object Section, in the Environment Division. Each entry links a class name to the filename of the class executable file. The class-names are the object references which the program uses for sending messages to the class object at run-time.

If the program itself is an OO COBOL class, the Class-Control paragraph also lists its superclass, and the class itself.

See also: class, class object, object reference, and superclass.

class object

An object which is a template for the creation of instance objects of the same type. For example, the the OrderedCollection class object creates instances of OrderedCollection. The class object itself does not have the same behavior and methods as the instance objects which it creates.

By analogy, a biscuit cutter is a template for creating biscuits; however, you can't eat a biscuit cutter and you can't stamp a biscuit from another biscuit. In OO COBOL, all the methods and data for a class object and the instance objects which it creates are represented by a class program.

The class object is created at run-time when a class is loaded.

See also class.

class library

The set of classes supplied with OO COBOL. The root class of the Class Library, Base, implements basic behavior for all classes, and provides a superclass for your own classes. There are also classes to implement collections, exception handlers, CallBacks, and GUI interfaces.

class program

See class.


An environment variable, used by the Java system, to locate compiled .class files.


To press and release a mouse button (from the noise that this action makes).

click and drag

To press and hold a mouse button and move the mouse pointer in the desired direction and then release the button.


The user of a service. In the context of Web Services, it is usually an application that invokes a Web service

client area

The part of a window that constitutes the available workspace for an application.

client window

A secondary window opened by an application.


A storage area used to hold data (text or graphics) temporarily during cut and paste operations.

See cut and paste.


How a secondary window is displayed in Dialog System. A window is clipped if any part of it that would overlap the boundary of the parent window is not displayed. A window is not clipped if it overlaps the boundary of the parent window. Secondary windows may have different properties depending on whether they are clipped or not.

See secondary window (clipped) and secondary window (non-clipped).


The process of copying a project and its source files to a different directory (using a different name if required) whilst keeping all the dependencies and build settings intact. Useful for creating a working version of an existing project whilst keeping the original intact.


An environment variable that contains a list of the paths of the COBOL system directories. Each path is separated from the next by a semicolon (;).

COBOL data description

Generate... on the Dialog System File menu creates a COPY-file from the Data Block. ds-cntrl.ans and are COPY-files representing the Dialog System Control Block. dssysinf.cpy represents the Dialog System Event Block.

COBOL system directories

A set of directories which are automatically searched by the COBOL run-time system to locate programs. They are identified by the COBDIR environment variable. The files of the COBOL system should be kept in the COBOL system directories.


A type of object used for storing a group of elements. Collections are analogous to tables in COBOL, but unlike a table, a collection is not necessarily fixed to an initial size, but can grow as more elements are added. The elements in a collection are usually objects, although you can also store certain types of string and numeric data. The OO COBOL Class Library provides many different types of collection, which organize data in different ways.


See Component Object Model (COM).

COM object

An application that has been registered under Component Object Model (COM)and so can be called by other applications.

combination box

Also known as combo box or selection list box.

See selection list box.

Common Client Interface (CCI)

The Common Client Interface (CCI) is defined by Sun. It is an application programming interface (API) for J2EE resource adapters (also known loosely as connectors) that connect to Enterprise Information Servers (EISs), such as Enterprise Server for Windows.

Common Communications Interface (CCI)

The Common Communications Interface (CCI) is an application programming interface (API) which enables application designers to build platform and protocol independent communications into their applications.

Common Gateway Interface (CGI)

Common Gateway Interface - a standard for external gateway programs to interface with information servers such as HTTP servers. CGI programs are usually run when an end-user enters some information into an HTML or ActiveX layout form displayed on a Web browser, and clicks a Submit button. The CGI program receives the information from the form, and sends back a result for display on the Web browser.

CGI and CGI program are terms often used to describe any kind of server-side program which runs on a Web server. Net Express tools create CGI programs, which you can convert to other Web server APIs (ISAPI or NSAPI) by recompiling and rebuilding.

communications server

A server that accepts client requests arriving at multiple IP addresses and sends responses to them. Handles a variety of communications protocols.


The component that checks the syntax of your COBOL source program, and converts it to native code.

Compiler phases

The Compiler operates in two phases. The first phase is called the check phase; during this phase, the compiler checks the syntax, and creates intermediate code from your source code. The second phase is the generate phase; during this phase, the Compiler generates object code or generated code as required.


1. A piece of software that performs some self-contained function and is written such that, when deployed under a suitable environment, it is automatically loaded and executed in response to requests from client applications. The environment would normally handle administrative matters such as security and scalability automatically, so programmers writing components can concentrate on writing just business logic.

See alsoEnterprise JavaBeans (EJB),Component Object Model (COM),application server, andMicrosoft Transaction System (MTS).

2. An object which can send and receive signals. Any object can be made into a component by sending it the "makeComponent" message. Components operate in a way analogous to microchips; they define a set of inputs and outputs. A component can send output signals regardless of whether or not there is another component receiving those signals, without causing a run-time error.

See also object, signal.

Component Object Model (COM)

An alternative name for Microsoft's OLE technology. A mechanism in Windows whereby an application can be registered with the operating system, thereby enabling other applications to call it. The application is given a numeric key, which is stored in the registry together with the application's location. A client calls the application by calling the key.

See also Distributed COM (COM), ActiveX, Microsoft Transaction System (MTS), and OLE.

compression routine

A routine that you call from your program to carry out data compression or key compression on a file. Micro Focus supplies a compression routine and you can provide your own compression routines.

See also Micro Focus compression routine and user-supplied compression routine.

configuration block

An area of memory containing configuration information such as environment variables and run-time tunables that the COBOL application needs to allow it to run successfully.


A standard extension mechanism for containers to provide connectivity to enterprise information systems. A connector is specific to an enterprise information system and consists of a resource adapter and application development tools for enterprise information system connectivity. The resource adapter is plugged in to a container through its support for system-level contracts defined in the connector architecture.

connector architecture

An architecture for integration of J2EE products with enterprise information systems. There are two parts to this architecture: a resource adapter provided by an enterprise information system vendor and the J2EE product that allows this resource adapter to plug in. This architecture defines a set of contracts that a resource adapter has to support in order to plug in to a J2EE product, for example, transactions, security, and resource management.


An entity that provides life cycle management, security, deployment, and runtime services to components. Each type of container (EJB, Web, JSP, servlet, applet, and application client) also provides component specific services.

container-managed service

A service in which the application container manages transactions on behalf of the COBOL application: the application container connects to resources (files and databases) and issues COMMITs, ROLLBACKS on behalf of the application.

context menu

See popup menu.

context number

Every topic in an on-line help file has a unique context number that is used to reference that topic. The context number is used as an index into a look-up table held in the file which defines the address of each topic in the file.

You can choose the context number and define it using a .define tag. The numbers are purely arbitrary and do not reflect the structure of the file. The sequence of the topics in the source files is the only structure recognized.

More than one context number can point to the same topic.


An object that enables you to select choices or type information. Examples are entry fields, list boxes, and buttons such as check boxes, pushbuttons, radio buttons and spin buttons.

See also button.For Dialog System, see control object.

Control Block

Controls the running of a COBOL program. In Dialog System, you can display the contents of the Control Block in the Screenset Animator.

control dialog

See object dialog.

control group

A set of physically identified controls,which makes each member of the group react to user actions in relation to other controls in that group. Some controls need to be grouped to operate correctly, for example, radio buttons need to be grouped so that selection of one deselects all the others.

control object

A Dialog System object that can be added to a window object.

control template

An example implementation of a user interface control, which is supported using functions external to Dialog System.


A token consisting of a name and value, passed to a Web browser by a server-side program.Cookies are used by server-side programs to maintain application state. For example, you could store a user id in a cookie, and use it to access an indexed file containing information about the selections a user had made in an online shopping application.


1. A file containing text, which the Compiler inserts into the main body of a COBOL program when it processes a COPY statement in that program.

2. The data block and other required information for a screenset generated by Dialog System.


A set of run units consisting of a parent run unit and all the run units created from it.

critical section

An area of code in a multi-threading program that accesses shared data. Critical sections can be protected by various synchronization primitives.

cross-reference list

A special sort of fixed-lines topic in an on-line help file where each line contains a cross-reference to another topic. Such a topic is defined using the .list tag. It must not contain any formatting tags. When displayed, a full width cursor appears. This can be used to select a line to which you want to refer.

The first word on the line is used as the cross-reference name unless it is defined as a hotspot, in which case the hotspot cross-reference is used.


See cascading style-sheet.

current directory

The directory that the operating system, when looking for a file, will search first if no path is specified.

current object

The selected object that can be worked with. Distinguished by an emphasized border or size handles around it . You can change the current object by clicking on another object. Any action initiated is applied to the current object.

current record pointer

The current record pointer (CRP) is used to determine which record will be returned by a sequential read operation. The CRP is set by OPEN, READ and START.

current statement

When debugging, the statement currently being executed or, if none is currently being executed, the statement to be executed next.


A graphical image that shows you where text will appear on the screen when you press keys, or where you can make a selection.

custom request handler

A request handler written by a user to meet specific application requirements not addressed by the Micro Focus request handlers.

Customer Information Control System (CICS)

IBM's online transaction processing system.


An editing operation to delete text from a file and move it to the clipboard, prior to pasting it back in a different location.

See also paste.


Data Block

The data definitions required by COBOL, as generated by Dialog System. Passed to Dialog System at run time.

data compression

Specified via the DATACOMPRESS directive in a $SET statement, data compression enables you to save disk space by compressing the data in a sequential or indexed file.

Data File Converter

A Net Express data tool that allows you to convert files between different formats.

Data File Editor

A data tool that allows you to edit data files.

Data Tools

A set of tools supplied with Net Express for working with data files.


See Double Byte Character Set.


SeeDistributed COM (DCOM).


Seedeployment descriptor.


In Dialog System, attributes that a window can have. They are title bar, system menu, menu bar, minimize and maximize icons, horizontal and vertical scroll bars.

default action

The action that will be performed when Enter is pressed or a confirmation choice is selected. If you double click on a selection, the item will be selected and the default action performed on it.


A relationship between data items or between objects and the dialog that references them. For example, an entry field is dependent on the master field referenced in its properties.


The process whereby software is installed into an operational environment.

deployment descriptor

A file provided with an EJB JAR file describing how it should be deployed. For EJB 1.1, the deployment descriptor is an XML file. In EJB 1.0 the deployment descriptor is a serializable Java class. The deployment descriptor directs a deployment tool to deploy a module or application with specific container options and describes specific configuration requirements that a Deployer must resolve.


The screen area on which the windows of a user's environment appear.

desktop mode

In Dialog System, a mode turned on by a checkmark option. In this mode, objects are displayed relative to the real desktop rather than to Dialog System's internal desktop which is bounded by the main window. Desktop mode is the default mode on Windows.

dialog box

A window that can contain controls, and asks for input from the user.

Dialog System extensions

Sets of dialog functions implemented by using the CALLOUT dialog function, which provide commonly used user interface facilities.

dialog unit

A device-independent unit of measurement related to the size of the System font in Windows. For horizontal measurement, a dialog unit is equal to one-quarter of the average character width of the System font. For vertical measurement, a dialog unit is equal to one-eighth of the average character height of the System font. Dialog boxes and their controls are sized in dialog units to ensure that the dialog box displays correctly regardless of the user's screen resolution.

dictionary file

A file used by the debugger. It contains information about a program's structure and contents. The Compiler creates the dictionary file in the first phase of compilation, when checking the syntax. A dictionary file has the filename extension .idy, and is often referred to an .idy file.


Shown with reduced contrast; a way of indicating choices on a menu that are not available in the current context. Also called grayed.


Keywords used to control compilation and animation.

directives file

An ASCII text file containing one or more directives on one or more lines.

Directory Server

The prgoram in Enterprise Server that maintains information about enterprise server objects (enterprise servers themselves, services, service listeners, request handlers and implementation packages), distrin=butes the information to the other Enteprrise Server components and controls enterprise servers.

Directory Server journal

A file that records some of the activity occurring on the Directory Server.

Directory Server repository

The set of files that describes enterprise servers and the services, service listeners, request handlers and implementation packages associated with them.

Distributed COM (DCOM)

An extension of Component Object Model (COM)enabling registered applicatons to be called remotely.


To attach a dockable window to the edge of the development environment main window.

dockable window

A window that can be displayed either as an ordinary window with a border on the desktop, or as a separate pane of the development environment main window. The status of the dockable window is changed by right-clicking on it and clicking Allow docking. When this is checked and the window is moved near an edge of the main window, it becomes a pane of the main window attached to that edge.

Document Object Model (DOM)

A way of representing a document as a tree containing nodes and subnodes. W3C have standards recommendations for Document Object Models for both HTML and XML documents, and models for other types of structured document are possible. For example, Microsoft have introduced a CodeDOM for representing the source code of computer programs as part of their .NET framework.

Document Type Definition (DTD)

A description of the structure and properties of a class of XML files.


See Document Object Model (DOM).

Domain Name Service (DNS)

A hierarchical naming system that uses a combination of text names separated by periods to create a unique name.

For example;

double byte character set

A 16-bit character set. Used, for example, to display Japanese characters.


To press and release a mouse button twice in rapid succession. Used to select an item or object and perform the default action on it (for example, double clicking on a window's system menu button closes that window).


To press and hold a mouse button, move the mouse pointer, then release the mouse button.

drag and drop

To press and hold a mouse button while the mouse pointer is on an object, move the mouse pointer, then release the mouse button. This moves the object to the new position. Use this method to move icons or data from a source to a destination.


See Document Type Definition (DTD).

dynamic binding

The object which will receive a message is unknown when an OO COBOL program is compiled. The OO COBOL system determines the receiver at run-time.

Dynamic HTML (DHTML)

A collective name for some new HTML features that give Web authors more control over the appearance of their Web pages and enable them to create Web pages that can change in response to user interaction. Both the Netscape Navigator 4.0 or above browser and Microsoft's Internet Explorer 4.0 or above browser support DHTML. However, their definitions of exactly what it constitutes are slightly different. Both have submitted their proposals for inclusion in HTML 4.0, the definition of which is being co-ordinated by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). DHTML provides an object-oriented view of a Web page and its elements; this is known as the Document Object Model.

dynamic link library

An executable file in an industry standard format. Dynamic link library files have the file extension .dll, and are often known as .dll files. A dynamic link library is created by linking an .obj file.

dynamic linking

A method of linking in which a subprogram is loaded into memory is loaded into memory when it is first called. During linking, the call is replaced by code that causes the name of the subprogram to be passed to a run-time routine. At run-time, this routine searches for the subprogram, first to see if it is already loaded, and, if not, if it exists in a dynamically linked executable of the same name. When found, and loaded if necessary, control is passed to the subprogram.

See also static linking.

dynamic loading

A method of loading a program into memory when it is not linked to an application. A dynamically loaded program is only loaded when it is called. Dynamic loading is used for .int and .gnt files.

dynamic run-time system binding

A method of linking that enables a program to load and use any run-time system supported by dynamic run-time system binding.

dynamic subprogram

A subprogram which is linked in such a way that it will not be required at link time, but can be accessed dynamically when it is referenced at run time.

dynamically assigned file

A file whose name is specified to the COBOL program via a data item referenced in the ASSIGN clause of the SELECT statement.

See also externally assigned file.


EAR file

A JAR archive that contains a J2EE application.


See Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code


A set of Business-to-Business (B2B)XMLspecifications developed by UN/CEFACT (United Nations Centre for Trade Facilitation and Electronic Business) and OASIS (Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards) to enable a modular electronic business framework.

edit field

A text box in which the user can enter information. Also called an entry field.


See Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB).

EJB component

A set of Java classes that has been built to the Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB)specification, enabling it to be deployed as a component in an application server so it can be called by other applications.

EJB server

Enterprise JavaBeans execute within an EJB container, which in turn executes within an EJB server. Any server that can host an EJB container and provide it with the necessary services can be an EJB server. This means that many existing servers, such as Web servers, may be extended to be EJB servers, and in fact many vendors have achieved this.

See also Web server.

Embedded HTML (EHTML)

HTML that is embedded within a COBOL program. It is delimited by EXEC HTML and END-EXEC statements.


In OO programming, an object's data is said to be encapsulated when you can only access or manipulate the data through the methods the object provides. To invoke a particular method, you send the object a message.


The ACCEPT and DISPLAY syntax available with this system has been extended beyond the ANSI standard to allow sophisticated handling of the screen and keyboard.

Such ACCEPT and DISPLAY syntax is referred to as enhanced or extended.

See also Adis.

enterprise bean

A component that implements a business task or business entity and resides in an EJB container; either an entity bean or a session bean.

enterprise information system (EIS)

The applications that comprise an enterprise's existing system for handling company-wide information. These applications provide an information infrastructure for an enterprise. An enterprise information system offers a well defined set of services to its clients. These services are exposed to clients as local and/or remote interfaces. Examples of enterprise information systems include: enterprise resource planning systems, mainframe transaction processing systems, and legacy database systems.

Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB)

A set of standards and mechanisms for the development and deployment of enterprise-level applications that are distributed and object-oriented. Applications written using the Enterprise JavaBeans architecture are scalable, transactional, and secure.

Since Enterprise JavaBeans is the name of a facility, the term is singular.

See also EJB component.

ASP and JSP can be regarded as equivalent facilities, with ASP being the "Microsoft-world" one and JSP the "Java-world" one.

enterprise server

A server that provides an execution environment for COBOL applications running as services.

enterprise server console daemon

Parent of all processes in an enterprise server.

entry field

A text box in which the user can enter information.

entry point

A labeled place in a piece of code where execution can begin.


1. Something done by a user, such as pressing a key, which causes a message to be sent to a window procedure or, in OO programming, an object. In Dialog System, functions can be defined in dialog as being associated with an event so they will execute when the event occurs.

2. A synchronization primitive that is used to lock a critical section so that the section is used exclusively by the thread that locked it.

event handler

A piece of code for processing an event. An event handler for a window or dialog box is an OO COBOL method. An event handler for an HTML or ActiveX layout form is written in JavaScript or JScript and embedded in the HTML page.

event item

See event.


A processing error at run-time. Objects should be designed to raise exceptions whenever they encounter an error condition. The supplied Class Library provides a default exception handling mechanism which reports the error and shuts down the application. You can attach your own exception handling mechanisms to any class or instance object if you want a more sophisticated way of responding to exceptions.

.exe file

See executable file.

executable code

Code that can be executed. The types of executable code are system executable code, dynamic link libraries, generated code and intermediate code.

executable file

A file that contains executable code, and thus can be run or executed. An executable file that can be invoked from the command line is called the trigger or main executable file, and is always a system executable file. An executable file that is dynamically linked to another program is called a dynamic link library. Intermediate code files and generated code files are executable files that can be dynamically loaded, and do not have to be linked.

explicit call

A call made from a program in which the full filename of the called program is specified; for example:

call "myprog.gnt"

Compare with implicit call

explicit filename

When called from a program, a full filename including the extension; for example:

call "myprog.gnt"

Compare with implicit filename


In Dialog System, create a representation of a screenset in textual mode.



eXtensible Markup Language (XML)

A notation in which you describe the structure of information in a text document by enclosing information in user-defined tags that define the syntactic elements. A flexible way to create common information formats and share both the format and the data on the World Wide Web, intranets, and elsewhere.

J2EE deployment descriptors are expressed in XML.

Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code (EBCDIC)

Used on IBM mainframes and consisting of 256 characters all of which are valid data characters which can appear in quoted text strings in source code. The letter A has the hexadecimal value x"C1" and the digit 0 has the hexadecimal value x"F0" which causes the collating sequence for letters and numbers to be reversed from ASCII.

eXtensible Stylesheet Language (XSL)

XSL is a language for expressing stylesheets in XML documents and is the counterpart to the Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) language in HTML. Developed by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), XSL consists of three parts: XSL Transformation (XSLT), XML Path Language (XPath), and XSL Formatting Objects.

eXtensible Stylesheet Language Transformation(XSLT)

A language for transforming the structure of XML documents. Used both for transforming one XML document into another XML document and for transforming XML documents to text or HTML documents.


The part of a file-name that follows the period (.). In NTFS it follows the last period.

external file

A file that is EXTERNAL as defined by the ANSI'85 standard. It can be accessed by any program running in the run unit. Do not confuse external files with externally assigned files.

external topic-name

Used in on-line help files if a topic is going to be accessed from an external source. These names are held in a tree structure in the on-line help file. When a topic-name is used in a search or on entry to the On-line Help Viewer, the tree is searched for the name.

externally assigned file

A file whose name is specified to the COBOL program via a mechanism outside the program - such as an operating system command - rather than in the ASSIGN clause of the SELECT statement.

See also dynamically assigned file.



An area on a screen defined to display or accept an elementary data item. The term is sometimes used to refer to the elementary data item.

File Handling Redirector (Fhredir)

The File Handling Redirector is a module in the COBOL system that can be used to intercept I/O requests to indexed, sequential and relative files. Depending upon how the File Handling Redirector is configured, these requests are passed directly to the Callable File Handler or to a Fileshare Server running on a remote machine. It is also possible to call the File Handling Redirector directly as it conforms to the same API as the Callable File Handler.

File menu

A Dialog System menu that enables you to work with an entire screenset.

Fileshare Client

Fileshare Client is the client portion of Fileshare Version 2.

A Fileshare Client is a user program making I/O requests to data files via the File Handling Redirector module.

Fileshare Server

Fileshare Server is the server portion of Fileshare Version 2.

A Fileshare Server accepts requests across a network from a Fileshare Client, processes them by calling a local copy of the Callable File Handler and then returns the result to the Fileshare Client.


A functional unit that protects and controls the connection of one network to other networks. The firewall prevents unwanted or unauthorized communication traffic from entering the protected network and allows only selected communication traffic to leave the protected network.

first window

The window that will be displayed first when a screenset runs.

fixed-lines block

A block of lines in a topic of an on-line help file that is displayed exactly as written with no formatting. If no vertical alignment is needed, such a block is defined using the :lines and :elines tags. If vertical alignment is to be maintained, you must define the block as a character graphic.

Fix File Index

A Net Express data tool that allows you to rebuild the index of a corrupt indexed file.


A topic in an on-line help file that is formatted dynamically at display time to fit in the sides of the topic window so that no horizontal scrolling is necessary. Fixed-lines blocks can extend beyond the right-hand edge of the window.


See input focus.

frame control

A rectangular border that can be used to frame other controls on a dialog box.


An HTML element which enables you to define the number and size of vertical and horizontal frames inside an HTML page. Each frame displays a separate HTML page as a subwindow inside the frameset.


A protocol used by several different types of object co-operating to implement a particular function. An individual class or instance object has a public interface which describes the way you communicate with that object. A framework describes the way in which different types of object interact together. For example, the public interface to an OrderedCollection describes how you can add, retrieve and remove elements. The Collection framework describes how OrderedCollections (and other types of collection) communicate with the objects they are storing as elements.


Dialog System functions are used in dialog to effect actions as a result of an event occurring. For example, an event such as BUTTON-SELECTED might invoke a function such as CREATE-WINDOW.



See control.

general protection fault

See protection violation.

generated code

Executable code in a Micro Focus proprietary format. It is produced by the Compiler during the second phase of compilation, and is optimized intermediate code.

generated code file

An executable file containing generated code. It is produced by the Compiler during the second phase of compilation, and is optimized intermediate code. Generated code files have the extension .gnt, and are often known as .gnt files.

generate phase

The second phase of compilation, which converts intermediate code to native code (also called generated code).

See also generated code.


The Compiler is sometimes treated as if it is two separate compilers. The second phase of compilation is thus sometimes called the Generator.

See also generate phase

global dialog

Dialog System dialog attached to a screenset. The dialog defines the behavior of the screenset in response to events that are global to the screenset. Dialog System searches the dialog attached to the current control or window. If it does not find the event, it searches the global dialog.

See also object dialog

.gnt file

See generated code file.

graphical object

An item (on a screen) that you can manipulate as a single unit, such as a pointer, icon, window or menu.

graphical user interface

A user interface in which you control the working of a program by selecting icons and by selecting items from windows such as pulldown menus and dialog boxes; generally you do this by clicking with a mouse.


See dimmed.

group box

A title and box drawn around a group of controls. This box is used to visually emphasize a group of related controls.

See also control group

guard page

A memory page (4096 bytes on Intel processors) that has special permissions set on it so that it cannot be read or written to. By placing guard pages before or after pages assigned to object storage, the run-time system can catch attempts to read or write beyond the ends of object data.


See graphical user interface.



See request handler.

header bar

A control used at the top of a list box to label columns in the list box. The user can change the size of columns by dragging the header bar borders. Push button-style header bars are often used to provide a mechanism for sorting the items in the list alphabetically by values in any of the columns.

Help button

A push button on a window or dialog box that provides contextual help when pushed.

Help index

An alphabetical list of the available help topics. Accessed from the Help menu or from menu bars and Help buttons within the Help system.

Help menu

The menu of help choices available from the menu bar.


A visual means (reverse video or color change) of indicating that an object or an item is selected.

High Performance File System

An optional file-handling system in Windows NT that is compatible with OS/2. When you use it file access is very efficient, and filenames are not restricted to those consisting of 8-character basename, period, and 3-character extension. Your disk must be specially formatted to use HPFS.

history list

A list used to store the title of each on-line help topic displayed. By accessing the list, any topic previously visited can be identified and revisited. The history list holds the last 40 items visited in the current session.

home topic

The first topic in the first source file used to create an on-line help file. The home topic is displayed whenever the On-line Help Viewer is specified with a filename but no topic-name. Additionally, the Home function causes the home topic to be displayed. The home topic should always contain a very brief overview of the information supplied in the on-line help file, and provide hotspots to enable the user to get to the various parts of the file.

horizontal scroll bar

See scroll bar.

host variable

A COBOL field that is referenced by OpenESQL statements. Host variables are the primary means by which data is transferred between an SQL database and COBOL applications.


A keystroke (such as Alt+I) which you can use to select a menu choice when that choice is visible.


An area in a topic of an on-line help file which, when activated, causes another topic to be displayed. Hotspots should be identified by using consistent highlighting.


See High Performance File System.


See Hypertext Markup Language (HTML).

HTML form

A form for display in a Web browser. HTML provides form elements, which enable you to add controls such as entry fields and buttons to an HTML page. HTML forms can be displayed in any form-enabled Web browser.


See Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP).

HTTP server

See Web server .


See Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTPS).

HyperText Markup Language (HTML)

A set of markup symbols used for formatting and layout control in files intended for display on World Wide Web browsers. HTML documents can contain links (URLs) to jump to other documents, download files, or run server-side programs.

HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP)

The set of rules for exchanging files (text, graphic images, sound, video, and other multimedia files) on the World Wide Web. Relative to the TCP/IP suite of protocols, which are the basis for information exchange on the Internet, HTTP is an application protocol.



A small picture representing an object or a selection choice (for example a window, project, tool, program, document, set of data, container). Windows can be minimized (reduced to icons) to save space on the desktop.


See resource identifier.


See interface definition table.

.idy file

See dictionary file.


See Internet Information Server.

implementation package

A collection of information about a COBOL application that is providing a service.

implicit call

A call made from a program in which only the basename (that is the, filename without the file extension) of the called program is specified; for example:

call "myprog"

For implicit calls, the run-time system searches for files in a particular order (for example, first by seeing if there is a file of filename.gnt, then, and so on).

Compare with explicit call

implicit filename

A filename called from a program in which only the basename, (that is the, filename without the file extension) is specified; for example:

call "myprog"

The run-time system searches for implicit filenames in a particular order (for example, first by seeing if there is a file of filename.gnt, then, and so on).

Compare with explicit filename


Receive a representation of a screenset in textual mode. Selective import of objects is possible.

in-place activation

A COM server started inside the COM container window. When in-place activation occurs, the server can add its own menus and toolbars to the container.

See also COM container, COM server.

inactive window

An open window that is not receiving input from the keyboard. Distinguished from the active window by a dimmed border.


A file containing text, which the Compiler inserts into the main body of a COBOL program when it processes an INCLUDE statement in that program.

See also copyfile.


The mechanism by which a subclass has access to the functionality in its superclass. A subclass always inherits all the methods of its superclass, which it can override if necessary. A subclass can also inherit the data of its superclass, although this depends on the settings in the CLASS-ID header of both the subclass and the superclass. By identifying different types of objects which have common functionality, you can implement the common methods for that functionality in a single class and inherit it in any number of subclasses.

Each class inherits all the methods of its superclass, so a class ultimately inherits all methods all the way up to a root class. A class object inherits the class methods of its superclass, and an instance object inherits the instance methods of its superclass. In this OO COBOL implementation, a class has only one immediate superclass. The superclass is named in the INHERITS clause of the CLASS-ID header.

See also subclass, superclass.

input focus

A state of the system that indicates which window receives keyboard events. A window has the focus if keyboard and mouse events are sent to it.

input socket

Defines a set of signals which a component can receive. A single component can have many input sockets, and use each each socket to connect to a different component.

See also component, signal .


1. The instructions and data that result from a single call of a recursive routine.

See also Instance Object.

2. In Dialog System, a copy of a screenset or object. You can have multiple copies of the same screenset visible on the screen at run time.

instance object

A single occurrence of an object of a particular class. Instance objects are created by sending an appropriate message (usually "new") to a class object. For example, to create a window for display on the desktop, you send the "new" message to the Window class object. The methods and data for instance objects are defined in the object program, which is nested within the class program. The object program starts with the header OBJECT and finishes with END OBJECT.


To run a program by making a single call to the program. The instructions that are executed together with the set of data produced by the unique call to the program are called an instance of the program.

.int file

See intermediate code file.

interface definition table

A collection of information necessary to map a client request onto a COBOL program interface.

intermediate code

Code produced when a source program is syntax-checked. Intermediate code is executable code in a Micro Focus proprietary format.

intermediate code file

An executable file containing intermediate code. An intermediate code file has the filename extension .int, and is often referred to an .int file.

Internet Information Server (IIS)

Microsoft's Web server product.

Internet Protocol (IP)

Low level communications standard for transporting packets on the Internet.

Internet Server API (ISAPI)

A programming interface and a template for writing applications that run in Microsoft's Web server(IIS).

intrinsic class

A class corresponding to a COBOL intrinsic data type. These classes are used as templates so that you can send messages to COBOL intrinsic data using the INVOKE ... AS... construct.


The process by which a Java Bean class is read in order to create a representation of the Java Bean's API. It is carried out by the Introspector class, which is part of the Java Core Reflection API.


Send a message to an object. OO COBOL defines a new verb, INVOKE, to enable you to send messages.


See Internet Protocol.

IP address

Every machine on the Internet is allocated an IP address. These are 32 bit numbers usually represented as four eight bit numbers separated by dots, for example,


See Internet Server API.


J2EE connector

See connector.

J2EE server

The runtime portion of a J2EE product. A J2EE server provides Web and/or EJB containers.

JAR file

See Java ARchive (JAR) file.


Java is a simple, robust, object-oriented, platform-independent multi-threaded, dynamic general-purpose programming environment. Its main use is for creating applets (small applications) which run inside an end-user's browser, using their machine's resources.

Java ARchive (JAR) file

Used for packaging a Java applet or application together with any other classes and resources (e.g. sound or image files) it needs to run. The JAR file format is based on the Zip file format and has the extension .jar. JAR is a platform-independent file format that permits many files to be aggregated into one file.

Java Development Kit (JDK)

A software development environment for writingapplets and applications in the Java programming language.

Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI)

An API that provides naming and directory functionality.

Java Remote Method Invocation (RMI)

A distributed object model for communications among Java programs, in which the methods of remote objects written in the Java programming language can be invoked from other Java virtual machines, possibly on different hosts.


An object-oriented programming interface from Sun Microsystems that lets you build reusable applications or program building blocks called components, which can be deployed in a network.

JavaBeans component

A Java class that can be manipulated in a visual builder tool and composed into applications. A JavaBeans component must adhere to certain property and event interface conventions.


An object-oriented scripting language for use with Web browsers. JavaScript code can be embedded on an HTML page, HTML form or ActiveX layout form. JavaScript enables you to make a page or form interactive, responding to user events (such as mouse-clicks) without the need to run a server-side program. Not all browsers support JavaScript, Netscape Navigator V2.0 or later and Microsoft Internet Explorer 3.0 or later both support JavaScript. Do not confuse JavaScript with Java; although they have similar syntax, Java is a full programming language which supports the creation of sophisticated applications.

JavaServer Pages (JSP)

An extensible Web technology that uses template data, custom elements, scripting languages, and server-side Java objects to return dynamic content to a client. Typically the template data is HTML or XML elements, and in many cases the client is a Web browser.

Since JavaServer Pages is the name of a facility, the term is singular.

See alsoJSP page and Active Server Pages (ASP). ASP and JSP can be regarded as equivalent facilities, with ASP being the "Microsoft-world" one and JSP the "Java-world" one.

Java servlet

A protocol- and platform-independent server-side component, written in Java. Servlets can be plugged into a Web server, dynamically extending its functionality.


See Java Development Kit (JDK).


Abbreviation for just-in-time, see just-in-time debugging.


See Java Naming and Directory Interface.


See Directory Server journal.


A variant of JavaScript


See JavaServer Pages.

JSP page

A Web page with the extension .jsp, which is recognized by the Web server as meaning it contains scripts for execution by the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) in the Web server.

See Java Server Pages (JSP).

just-in-time (JIT) debugging

A technique for debugging a program where the debugger is started only when the program fails.



Abbreviation for kilobyte, a measure of size of computer storage, equal to 1024 bytes.

key compression

Specified via the KEYCOMPRESS directive in a $SET statement, key compression enables you to save disk space by compressing the keys of an indexed file.

keyboard shortcut

A key that provides an immediate short-cut to a function. For example, Ctrl+O is equivalent to clicking File, Open on the Net Express menu. Where keyboard shortcuts are attached to menu items, they are shown right-justified against the items to which they apply.

keyboard shortcut scheme

A collection of keyboard shortcuts.



On a structure diagram, a node with no subordinate nodes.

.lib file

A file containing binary objects that can be linked into a system executable file. A common type of .lib file contains indirection references to calls in a dynamic link library, and is called an import library. The exact format of the file is platform-specific.


A file with a file extension of .lbr containing a set of other files or programs. The library file can be opened by the COBOL system or a user application to make those files or programs accessible.


The utility used to link .obj files to create system executable files or dynamic link libraries.


Using the Linker to link a program to other programs, or to a run-time system.


A structure in a topic in an on-line help file that is displayed in a specific way. Each list consists of a set of items, the start of each item being identified by an appropriate tag. The start and end of each list is also identified by a tag. A list item can contain further lists. The presentation of these embedded lists reflects the depth of embedding.

There are several types of lists: simple lists, unordered lists, ordered lists, definition lists and parameter lists.

list box

See simple list box.


See service listener.


A faster form of static linking, in which calls are resolved at link-time. Calls are litlinked if call convention 8 is used on the call, or if the program is compiled using the LITLINK compiler directive. As the name implies, a litlinked call must use a literal rather than a data-name.

local topic-name

A topic-name that can only be referenced from a single on-line help file. Such a name is identified by a leading "at" character (@). The On-line Help Builder converts all local topic-names to context numbers. Local topic-names cannot start with a digit.

logical event

An event defined for a particular object, and raised by the object as a result of an event from the end-user. For example, a dialog box might define logical events to represent OK and Cancel, raising OK when the OK button is clicked and Cancel when the Cancel button is clicked. The parent of the dialog box can register interest in the OK and Cancel logical events, so that it can act on these events without knowing the details of the dialog box controls.

See also event.


machine code

See native code.

main executable file

The executable file that is invoked from the command line to start an application. Also sometimes known as the root executable file.

main window

The first (or primary) window in Dialog System. Dialog System opens in desktop mode.


File describing the contents of an EJB JAR file.


The process of associating corresponding elements in two sets of information.

master field

The field in the Data Block that stores input from an entry field. An entry field is dependent on its master field.

See also dependency.


To enlarge a window to its maximum size (the full size of the screen).

maximize button

A button labeled with a bitmap in the top right corner of a window. Pushing this button maximizes the window.


Abbreviation for megabyte, a measure of size of computer storage, equal to 1024 kilobytes.


Multiple Document Interface.

memory leak

Memory no longer needed, but not deallocated by the OO system. An application should finalize an object when it is no longer required. When an application no longer has a handle to an object which still exists, the object is effectively unreachable, and can no longer be finalized. This is a memory leak.


A list of the command choices available in a window.

menu bar

A set of pulldown menus providing access to the commands available for the window.

menu choice

See choice.

menu hint

A short description of the effect of a menu item, displayed in the status bar of the window whenever the menu item is highlighted.

menu item

See choice.


In object-oriented programming, a message invokes a method when sent to an object. The method invoked matches the message sent. The text of the message is known as the method selector. The INVOKE verb enables you to send messages. For example:

INVOKE anOrange "peel" returning segments.

The method selector "peel" invokes the peel method in anOrange. Data is returned from the method in data item segments.

See also method, invoke.

In API programming, a message consists of a symbolic name and associated data parameters. A message is put in an application's message queue to inform it that a certain event has occurred.

message binding

Ensuring that each message is delivered to the right object. Binding can be dynamic or static. In a statically bound object-oriented programming system (OOPS), the receiver of a message is determined at compile-time. In a dynamically bound OOPS, the receiver of a message is determined at run-time. This release of OO COBOL supports dynamic binding only.

message box

A special type of dialog box that provides information or notes the state of work in progress, gives a warning, asks a question or highlights an error.

message loop

In API programming, a loop structure in the main window procedure that retrieves messages from an application's message queue and relays them (posts them) to the appropriate object for further processing.

message queue

A first in-first out buffer that stores messages for an object until the object is ready to process them. In API programming, the message queue for an application is set up by the operating system in response to the application's initialization request.


Enables the creation of class objects. All class objects are instances of the metaclass object. In OO COBOL, the metaclass is Behavior, which is part of the Class Library. All classes inherit the instance methods of Behavior, even root classes, because all classes are instances of Behavior.

See also class object, instance object, root class.


Code manipulating or interrogating the data within an object. In OO COBOL, each method is coded as a nested program within a class.

Micro Focus compression routine

A Micro Focus routine used to carry out data compression. It does it through a form of run length encoding. The routine is stored in a module called CBLDCnnn. You can specify up to 127 such routines.

See also compression routine and user-supplied compression routine.

Microsoft Transaction System (MTS)

An environment available for Windows, under whichCOM objects can be deployed so they will be loaded and run in response to requests from client applications. MTS handles administrative matters such as security and scalability automatically, so programmers writing components can concentrate on writing just business logic.

MTS running COM objects, and an application server running EJB components, can be regarded as similar facilities, with MTS being the "Microsoft-world" one and application servers the "Java-world" one.


To reduce a window to its minimum size (an icon).

minimize button

A pushbutton labeled with a bitmap, appearing to the left of the maximize button in the top right corner of a window. Pushing this button minimizes the window.


A Micro Focus version of the LDAP, or Lightweight Directory Access Protocol. MLDAP enables program clients to locate services and other objects in the Directory Server repository.

modal dialog box

A dialog box that requires the end-user to supply information or cancel the dialog box before the application can continue. When a modal dialog box is active, the end-user can't set focus to any of the other windows or dialog boxes in the application.

modeless dialog box

A dialog box that allows the end-user to supply information and return to the previous task without closing the dialog box.


A synchronization primitive that enables critical sections to be accessed by multiple threads for some operations (such as reading data), but to be locked by a single thread for exclusive operations (such as writing data).

mouse button

A button on a mouse that may be clicked, double-clicked, pressed, released or dragged (held down while the mouse is moved). The mouse buttons may be configured to move, size or select objects.

mouse event

A change in the state of a mouse, such as a button being pressed or the mouse being moved.

mouse pointer

The visual representation of the mouse pointing device. The shape may vary depending on the actions taking place.


SeeMicrosoft Transaction System (MTS).

Multiple line entry field (MLE)

A Dialog System control object that enables users to input more than one line of text.

multiple selection

The ability to select more than one item (for example, in a list) where the items are not necessarily contiguous.


A term used to describe:

multi-user environment

An environment where more than one user can be active simultaneously.


A synchronization primitive that is used to lock critical sections so that the section is used exclusively by the thread that locked it.



A namespace is a unique identifier that indicates the names of particular data elements or attributes used within an XML file.

naming context

A set of associations between distinct, atomic people-friendly identifiers and objects.

naming service

Maps a given name to the corresponding object reference stored under that name.

native code

The code that the microprocessor understands directly without the need for an interpreter. Also known as native machine code. It will only run on machines containing the appropriate microprocessor.

NetScape Server API (NSAPI)

Programming interface and template for writing applications that run in Netscape's Web servers.


National Language Support.


Refers to a point, typically an element or attribute, in a schema tree.

node set

An unordered collection of nodes.


See Netscape Server API.


See Windows NT file system.

null-terminated string

A literal which ends with x"00". You can create this easily in OO COBOL by prefixing any literal with the letter z.

For example:

01 aName      pic x(5) z"Fred".


move z"I'm a literal" to string

Allow one extra byte for the null character in any data-item which stores a null-terminated string.



An encapsulation of data and methods. The only way to access an object's data is by sending it messages. You can also think of an object as intelligent data, which includes implementations for the operations (methods) appropriate to itself.

There are two types of object: classes and instances. A class object is created when you register a class; an instance is created whenever you send an appropriate message to the class object which defines that instance. The OO COBOL run-time system allocates each object its own data area in memory. There can be many instance objects of the same type within a run-unit, but there can only be one class object of each type.

object code

Code produced by the Compiler in standard format for use with the Linker.

object code file

A file containing object code. Object code files have the file extension .obj, and are often referred to as .obj files.

object dialog

Dialog System dialog attached to an object. The dialog defines the behavior of the screenset in response to external events.

object handle

An ID or reference by which you can access a particular object. Every object is assigned a unique handle when it gets created at run-time. You always give the object handle when you send a message; the OO RTS uses the handle to find the object which should receive the message. You store object handles in data items of type object reference.

See also: object reference

object interface

The object interface is the list of methods implemented by an object, together with descriptions of the parameters passed to and from the object by each method.

See also: public interface

object menu

A menu containing all the Dialog System objects as choices. Use this menu to create objects.

OO Run-time System

Supports features of object oriented programming not covered by the standard COBOL run-time system (for example, object creation and destruction).

object reference

A COBOL data item, declared as object reference which can hold an object handle. You can also pass object references as parameters when you send a message or make a COBOL CALL, in effect enabling you to pass objects between different parts of an application. Object references are untyped, so the same data item can hold an object reference for any class or instance object. That is, there is no distinction between the type of object reference declared to hold an instance of one class or another.

See also: object handle

object toolbar

A collection of icons representing the Dialog System objects. Objects can be created directly from the object toolbar by clicking on the relevant icon, without going through the object menu.

.obj file

See object code file.

OCX control

See OLE control.


Object Linking and Embedding. A Windows protocol enabling applications to cooperate with each other. Also known as COM (Component Object Model).

OLE automation

The part of OLE that deals with basic messaging between objects. An OLE automation client can start and send requests to an OLE automation server.

See also OLE.

OLE container

An OLE enabled application that acts as an OLE client to enable the embedding of documents created with by OLE servers.

See also OLE.

OLE control

A custom control built on OLE technology. Custom controls can encapsulate quite complex functionality. For example, you can purchase grid controls that enable you to embed spreadsheet types of functionality into your application. OLE controls are also known as ActiveX controls.

See also ActiveX control, control, OLE.

OLE server

An OLE enabled application that enables an OLE client to embed a document created with the server inside a document created with the client. OLE servers and OLE clients have to work inside a more precisely defined framework than OLE automation servers and clients.

See also OLE, OLE automation, OLE container.

on-line help

A set of screens of information that you can display while working. Each screen briefly lists and explains the functions available on the menu currently displayed.

on-line help file

A file with extension .hnf that is created by the On-line Help Builder from an on-line help source file.

On-line Reference

A database of formatted information that you can display on the screen while working; it is an electronic book, structured in a more advanced way than a printed book.


See OO COBOL Run-time System.

operation code

Also known as an opcode. A code consisting of two hexadecimal characters that specify an exact operation.

operating system support

See run-time support modules.

optimized code

Native code produced by the Compiler. COBOL code is first converted into an intermediate code, and then optimized into native code. There are two basic levels of optimization. The low level produces machine code with a direct correspondence to the lines of source code. The higher level performs additional compression, resulting in faster and smaller code.

Intermediate code can be embedded directly in an .obj file, producing much smaller code. This is an unoptimized .obj file.


A type of collection. You can either "add" elements to the end of an OrderedCollection, or "atPut" them to a particular indexed location. As you "add" elements, an OrderedCollection grows in size to accommodate them.



See implementation package.


Put information directly onto the surface of a window. You can use painting to write text in any size or font available on your Windows system, as well as to draw lines, curves, filled shapes and bitmaps.


A run unit that has created another run unit or a window that has opened another window.


An editing operation to insert text from the clipboard at the destination cursor. (Prior to pasting, text may be cut or copied from another location.)

See also cut.


A command used on Windows to specify a set of directories that should be searched when a program is invoked. The term PATH is used to refer to this list. A file is said to be "on the PATH" if it is in one of the directories named in this command. To see the PATH list currently set in your system, enter PATH on a command line.


The part of a file-name up to and including the last "\" character. It can start with a device specification followed by a colon (:).


The ability of the OO COBOL run-time system to remember the state of all objects in the system between runs. It does this by storing all objects in an indexed file. Persistence is an Early Release feature of OO COBOL.


The lines of code encompassed by a single PERFORM statement.


The data type and length of a COBOL data item, as declared in the source program.


See mouse pointer.


The method invoked by a particular message depends on the object which receives it. For example, you could implement several different classes of bank account object (checking, savings, high rate). All bank account objects would respond to the message "printStatement". However, each different type of account would implement "printStatement" differently, in a way appropriate to itself, for example, savings accounts show interest paid, but checking accounts don't. Polymorphism enables you to send the same message ("printStatement") to any type of account object and get appropriate results.

popup menu

A menu that gives no indication of its presence but pops up when you perform a particular action, such as right-clicking the mouse.

popup window

A window that gives no indication of its presence but pops up when you perform a particular action.

portability warnings

Warnings displayed by Dialog System whenever you try to create an object on one platform that is not valid on another platform.

primary window

A window that is directly on the desktop, that is, not the child of any other window.

See also secondary window.

Producer-Consumer problem

A class of problem in multi-threaded applications where a thread that produces data, and another thread that consumes that data, need to be synchronized so that when the consuming thread is active it always has data to operate on.

program client

A client of the Directory Server that connects to it using its underlying MLDAP application programming interface, for example, to search for a specific service before sending a request.

programmable switch

A switch that can be used to switch on or off a corresponding COBOL switch defined in the SPECIAL NAMES paragraph of the program.

See also switch.

progress bar

A control consisting of a rectangle which can be filled with colored blocks to indicate a proportional measurement. A progress bar is typically used to indicate the progress of a process that takes an appreciable amount of time, such as the proportion of a number of files that have been copied.


A file with the extension .app together with an associated .idx file that contain details of the source files used in an application, dependencies between the files, and instructions for building the application.


An attribute of an object. In the Component Object Model (COM), which is the basis for COM component, properties are exposed as part of the interface to an ActiveX object, so that clients can get or put the value of a property.

protect mode

The mode of the 386, 486, and Pentium processors which provides a large (not limited to 1Mb) address space for programs to run in, and a protection mechanism which allows an operating system to protect itself and applications from each other. This mode is used by Windows 95 and Windows NT.

protection violation

An error condition detected by Windows 95 or Windows NT indicating that an application has tried to access memory or devices that have not been allocated to it by the operating system.

proxy object

An object in one process or domain, which acts to forward messages to an object that is running in a different process or domain. Objects can send messages to the proxy, without needing to be aware that the actual object they are sending messages to is located elsewhere.

For example, the COM component support in OO COBOL enables you to access ActiveX objects, which could be running in a separate process, or even on a separate machine, as though they were OO COBOL objects. When an OO COBOL program requests an ActiveX object, the OO COBOL run-time system passes back a handle to a proxy object in an OBJECT REFERENCE. When you send a message to a proxy object, it is forwarded transparently to the ActiveX object. The data types for parameters and results sent between OO COBOL programs and ActiveX objects are also mapped automatically.

proxy server

A Web server which sits between an intranet and the Internet. Requests for web pages are sent via the proxy server, which then routes them appropriately. Proxy servers are used for a number of reasons, for example, to improve performance of the internal network, or to block access to certain sites.

public interface

A subset of an object interface, listing only the methods which should be used from outside the object. The public interface does not list any of the object's private or protected methods, which are only intended for use from inside the object or from its subclasses.

See also object interface


The process of copying to and rebuilding on a UNIX system an application developed on Net Express. The UNIX Option enables you to publish applications on UNIX systems.


The tool, provided by the UNIX Option, that enables you to publish applications.

pulldown menu

A menu that appears when you select a choice on a menu bar.


A rectangular button, labeled with text or with an icon, that represents an action. The action starts when you select the button. When selected, the button appears to be pushed in on the screen.

See also button.



radio button

A circular button labeled with text alongside it. When the radio button is selected, all other radio buttons in the same group box are deselected. The circle is partially filled in when selected. Radio buttons are used for a set of mutually exclusive choices.

Record Layout Editor

A Net Express data tool that allows you to define record layouts for your data file, thus enabling you to edit individual fields.

rectangle control

A solid rectangular block that can be used as a background for other controls on a dialog box.


Recursion occurs when a piece of code is executed before a previous execution of the same code has terminated; for example, when a program calls itself. Code that is capable of being executed in this way is called re-entrant; its instructions must be invariable, and it must define its variables in local-storage so that data from one instance of the code does not interfere with data from another instantiation. Recursion is common when using shared library routines, such as in object-oriented programming, API programming, and when packaging code in dynamic link libraries.

re-entrant code

Code that is capable of being shared between two instances of a program because its instructions are invariant and its variables are stored in such a way as to prevent data from one instance being confused with data from another.


In Web Services, this term refers to a list, on the Web, of available Web Services. Such a list is called an UDDI registry, and gives the URLs of deployed WSDL files. An UDDI registry is a list of descriptions of companies and the Web services they offer.


To let go of a mouse button that has been pressed and held down. Important in a drag and drop operation since it is the release that determines where the dragged item is dropped.

Remote Procedure Call (RPC) mechanism

A set of standards and mechanisms whereby a client on one computer can call a component on another. Most RPC mechanisms are features of the particular language and deployment method used. Web Services is in effect an RPC mechanism that is independent of language and deployment method.


Making visible on the desktop. All graphical objects provide some way of defining their appearance. When you are using objects from the GUI class library, rendering is usually transparent to the programmer.


A message that contains the results of a request. A synonym for response.


See Directory Server repository.


A message, such as a SOAP message, that requests a service from a server or object.

request handler

A program that converts client requests into a call to a COBOL program providing a service and reconverts the response from the program into a form that the client can understand.

resize border

See sizable border.


Non-executable binary data that is linked into a system executable file. Typically, the data defines parts of a program's graphical user interface, such as menus, dialog boxes and icons.

resource adapter

A system-level software driver that is used by an EJB container or an application client to connect to an enterprise information system. A resource adapter is typically specific to an enterprise information system. It is available as a library and is used within the address space of the server or the client using it. A resource adapter plugs in to a container. The application components deployed on the container then use the client API (exposed by adapter) or tool generated high-level abstractions to access the underlying enterprise information system. The resource adapter and EJB container collaborate to provide the underlying mechansims - transactions, security, and connection pooling - for connectivity to the enterprise information system.

resource identifier

An arbitrary integer value used to identify a particular resource within a program. The program usually refers to a control by its symbolic name which is associated with a resource identifier in a 78-level item in a copyfile. The copyfile is produced automatically by the Resource Manager.

resource script

A plain text file with extension .rc that defines the resources used in an application. If the resource is inherently binary; for example, a bitmap, the resource script contains a reference to the file containing the resource definition. The resource script file is automatically compiled by the Resource Manager to the binary .res file needed for linking when a project is rebuilt.


A message that contains the results of a request. A synonym for reply.


To return an icon or a maximized window to its normal size.


To press the right mouse button.


See Java Remote Method Invocation (RMI).


The main directory on a disk or system, that is, the directory to which all other directories are subordinate.

root class

A class which is not descended from any other class. The CLASS-ID for such a class has no INHERITS phrase.


SeeRemote Procedure Call (RPC) mechanism.


See run-time system.

rubber band

A sizable box for enclosing a group of objects or a portion of text prior to applying a particular function to all of them, for example, when selecting a block of text to be cut.

run-time interface mapper

Software that runs in a service execution process and maps the input and output data of an exposed interface to the Linkage Section data of a COBOL application.

run-time software

The Dialog System software that runs the application, using the screenset created with the definition software.

run-time support modules

Separate files containing routines to support advanced features of the COBOL language. Examples are: the module that handles indexed and external files, Extfh; and the extended ACCEPT/DISPLAY handler, Adis.

run-time switch

A switch that is acted on by the run-time system.

See also switch

run-time system

The support modules needed by a COBOL program to enable it to run. It provides an interface between the program and the operating system.

run-time tunables

Control the behavior of certain aspects of the COBOL run-time system.

run unit

A run unit is a main program, as invoked from the command line, plus any subprograms that it calls, directly or through other subprograms called by it. A run unit is an independent entity that can be executed without communicating with any other run unit.


sample programs

The programs supplied with the COBOL system as examples to demonstrate use of the system. Some are referred to by tutorials in the help.


See Simple API for XML (SAX).


Sizing, maintaining height and width ratio between objects.


In XML, a conceptual framework that describes the underlying structure of a collection of elements.


A collection of window objects, data definitions and dialog that make up a user interface. Dialog System run-time software uses the screenset to provide the graphical user interface to an application program.

Screenset Animator

The Dialog System test utility that enables you to prototype your interface without writing the COBOL for it.

scroll bar

A graphical device used to change your view of the contents of a window. A scroll bar contains a scroll area, a slider and scroll arrows. The position of the slider in the scroll bar indicates approximately the position in the file containing the data. The window contents can be moved by:

secondary window

A window that is not directly on the desktop, that is, that is the child of another window.

See also primary window.

secondary window (clipped)

A Dialog System window object that is a child of a primary window. When the screenset runs, the secondary window usually appears as a result of a user action. By convention, the presence of a secondary window or dialog box is indicated on a menu by an ellipsis (...) following a choice. Clipped secondary windows display only that part of the window visible inside the borders of the primary window.

secondary window (non-clipped)

A Dialog System window object that is a child of a primary window. When the screenset runs, the secondary window usually appears as a result of a user action. By convention, the presence of a secondary window or dialog box is indicated on a menu by an ellipsis (...) following a choice. Non-clipped secondary windows display the whole window and it may overlap the primary window.

Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol(HTTPS)

A Web protocol developed by Netscape and built into its browser. It encrypts and decrypts user page requests as well as the pages that are returned by the Web server.

See also Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP).

Secure Socket Layer (SSL)

Netscape Communications Corporation's implementation of a protocol that supports public key encryption.

selection list box

A text box combining an entry field and a simple list box.

selection cursor

A dotted-outline box that moves as you indicate your choice. It identifies the object that you can select.


Reserved variable which contains the object handle of the object in which it occurs. Used to enable objects to send messages to themselves.

If you send a message to SELF from object A, object A is the receiver of the message; if you send a message to self from object C, object C is the receiver of the message. SELF always refers to the object currently executing, even if the method is one which is being inherited.

For example, imagine two objects, A' and B', instances of classes A and B where B inherits from A. A implements instance method, "calculateValue". The "calculateValue" method sends the message "getObjectConstant" to self. If B' gets sent the "calculateValue" message, the method is inherited from class A. When "calculateValue" sends a message "getObjectConstant", the message actually gets sent to B'. If A' were to be sent the "calculateValue" message, then the send to SELF would send the message to A'.

You can use SELF exactly like any data item of type Object Reference, so you can also pass it as a parameter to other methods.

See also Inheritance, message, Object Reference, SELFCLASS, SUPER


Reserved variable which contains an object handle for the class object for this current object. Enables an instance to send a message to the class object which created it.

You can use SELF exactly like any data item of type Object Reference, so you can also pass it as a parameter to other methods.

See also Inheritance, message, Object Reference, SELF, SUPER


A synchronization primitive that is used to lock critical sections so that the section is used exclusively by the thread that locked it.

Server Administration

A user interface to the Directory Server that runs in a Web browser.

server monitor

Part of the Directory Server software that monitors whether or not enterprise servers are responding to client requests.

Server-Side Includes (SSIs)

A simple, ready-made script that can be included in an HTML page in order to perform a particular function such as printing the current date and time.

server-side program

The part of an application which runs on a server machine. For Internet applications, this is the program which runs on a Web server and processes end-user input from a form. The terms CGI and CGI program are often used synonymously with the term server-side program. Although CGI is only one of several APIs for creating server-side programs for Web servers, it is the most widely used.

server-side script

A script that is executed on the server platform when its URL is sent to the Web server by a browser.


Access to specific business functionality, usually through an Internet connection.

service broker

A component of Web Services that lists various services and arranges transactions, which helps service providers and service requesters find each other.

service class

A property of a service that could be common to several services providing the same or similar functionality, enabling clients to search for a class of service rather than a specific service.

service execution process

One of a pool of processes belonging to an enterprise server, in which the COBOL application process providing a service is executed in response to a client request.

service listener

A communications gateway that monitors client requests arriving at a specific IP address.

service provider

A component of Web Services that deploys Web Services for service requesters to use.

service requester

A component of Web Services using an application programming interface (API) to discover Web Services, which asks the service broker about the services it needs.

sessions list

A list of all the Web browser client and program clients of the Directory Server.


The installation program supplied with this COBOL system.


See Standardized Generalized Markup Language (SGML)

shared run-time system

Applications linked to use the shared run-time system do not have the run-time support code contained in the executable files. Instead, code is included to call the run-time modules contained in the shared run-time system.

See also static linked run-time system.

shortcut key

A keystroke (such as Ctrl+F4) which you can use to perform a specified function.

side file

File containing pointers to definitions of bitmaps, icons, mouse pointers or fonts.


The way components communicate. When a component sends a signal, it is received by all components connected to the sender. The receiving component only acts on the signal if it has an input socket and method defined for that signal. A component which sends a signal event when there are no components connected does not cause a run-time error.

Contrast with a message, which is sent to a single specific object. if the object does not understand the message it raises a run-time exception.

See also component, message, input socket.

Simple API for XML (SAX)

An event-driven, serial-access mechanism for accessing XML documents.

simple list box

A text box that contains a list of objects or settings from which you make selections.

See also selection list box.

Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP)

A standard format in XML for sending data between a client and a Web service. The service's WSDL file specifies the format of the SOAP messages it expects and will return.


See click.

sizable border

The border surrounding a window that can be used to change the height or width of a window.

size handles

Small black boxes that appear round an object to indicate that it is selected. You can drag the boxes to change the size of the object. Dimmed size handles indicate that the object is selected but cannot be resized.


The part of the scroll bar that shows the position of the contents of the current window in the file. Moving the slider changes the content of the current window.


See Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP).


See input socket.

source code

The COBOL code that makes up the program. This can consist of one or more text files.

special operation code

An operation code identified by the hexadecimal code x"00" in the most significant byte, followed by two characters which specify the exact operation.

See operation code.

spin button

An object used to display a sequence of mutually exclusive choices. You change the value by spinning through the range of choices.


See Structured Query Language.


See Server-Side Includes.


See Secure Socket Layer.

standalone executable

An executable file that can be shipped and run without any additional files, such subprograms or run-time support modules. It is a statically linked executable that uses the static-linked run-time; therefore all the subprograms and run-time support modules are actually contained within the executable file.

Standardized Generalized Markup Language (SGML)

An ISO/ANSI/ECMA standard that specifies a way to annotate text documents with information about types of sections of a document.

standard operating code

An operation code identified by the hexadecimal code x"FA" in the most significant byte, followed by two characters which specify the exact operation.

See operation code.

static linking

Linking a subprogram so that it is loaded into memory at the same time as the program that calls it. Usually, this means that all programs needed by the application are included in one executable file.

See also dynamic linking

static linked run-time system

The run-time system that, when used for creating applications, produces executable files containing all the run-time support they need without the need for other files.

See also shared run-time system.

status bar

A control consisting of a number of recessed static text fields that are used to display status information, such as whether the Caps Lock key is pressed, or the current position of the cursor in a file. The status bar is usually displayed along the bottom of a window or dialog box.

stored procedure

A block of code that is stored in an SQL database and can be called by applications. In some systems the code is written in an extended SQL dialect, in others it is written in a standard programming language and contains Embedded SQL. Stored procedures are used for one or more of the following reasons: to improve performance; to provide greater security; or to improve manageability.


The length of a single element in a table or array.

Structured Query Language

A language used to manage data held in a relational database.


A class descended from another one, inheriting its methods and data. In the Class Library supplied with OO COBOL all class are ultimately subclasses of Base.

substitution marker

A text literal which is replaced by the contents of a data item at run-time. For example, EHTML uses substitution markers in the format :dataname to insert data into HTML pages output by COBOL programs.


Reserved word which behaves like an object reference when used in an INVOKE statement. Like SELF, it enables an object to send a message to itself, but the search for a matching method starts in the code of the method's superclass.

If used from an instance, the OO RTS searches for a method beginning with the instance code of the superclass, and works its way up through the instance methods of all the superclasses until it finds a method matching the message. If used from a class method, the OO RTS searches for a class method beginning with the class object code of the superclass and works its way up through the class methods of all the superclasses until it finds a method matching the message.

Unlike SELF, and SELFCLASS, SUPER is not a data item containing an object handle; you can't pass SUPER as a parameter to a method.

See also Inheritance, message, Object Reference, SELF, SELFCLASS


The parent of a class. Every class has a single superclass immediately above it in the inheritance hierarchy, with the exception of those at the top of the hierarchy. In the supplied Class Library there is only one root class, Base, from which all other classes are descended.


A parameter you can pass to the run-time system to control the behavior of your program at run time. There are two types of switch: run-time and programmable.

symbolic name

An identifier that you can use in your code as a label to enable the development system to identify a specific data item, graphical object, or entry point. Symbolic names are cross-referenced to numbers; it is the number that is actually used by the development system. The name exists solely for the programmer's convenience. Symbolic names are sometimes referred to as symbols.

synchronization primitives

Methods by which the threads in a multi-threaded application can be synchronized. You can synchronize threads using a mutex, monitor, semaphore or event.


An object which enables you to store objects against symbols. Used for sending data with signals, as a SymbolTable enables the sender of a signal to package up several different data items into one object, which can then be unpackaged by the receivers of the signal. For example, the sender of an "open-file" signal could include the name of the file, and the filepath in a SymbolTable, against symbols z"filename" and z"filepath". Symbols are null-terminated strings, up to 32 characters long.

system executable code

Executable code in an industry standard native code format. It is used for the main or trigger program of an application. You create it by linking an .obj file. System executable code is stored in a system executable file.

system executable file

A file containing system executable code. You create it by linking an .obj file. A system executable file has the extension .exe, and is often referred to as an .exe file.

system menu

The operating system menu, which appears on a primary window when you push the system menu button in the top left corner of the Title bar. Typically contains choices for restoring, moving, sizing, minimizing, maximizing and closing the window.

system menu button

A button labeled with a bitmap, appearing at the top left corner of the window. Pushing the button drops down the system menu.


tab control

A control that looks like a tabbed index card and is used to select a dialog box or set of controls from a group of related dialog boxes or sets of controls. Tab controls are typically used on property sheets.

tab control page

A Dialog System object that can be added to a tab control object. Provides an extra section (page) in the tab control.


A position marker in a source file viewed with the COBOL Development Environment.


A control word embedded in on-line help source files. It defines how the file and topics are created. Some of the tags are used to define structures in the text so that the text can be reformatted dynamically in the display window.


See Transmission Control Protocol.


See Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol.

text control

A text string that appears on a dialog box. Because the user cannot do anything with the control, it is also known as a static text control.

text file

A file containing ASCII text created by any standard editor. Such text files can contain, for example, COBOL source code or Compiler directives. COBOL programs can read or write such files by specifying ORGANIZATION LINE SEQUENTIAL.


In a non-multi-threading environment, a main COBOL program and all the programs or subprograms called by it, directly or indirectly.

In a multi-threading environment, a strand of execution within a process. If many threads can execute simultaneously within a process, then the program is said to be multi-threading.

thread handle

Used to identify a thread to the run-time system. The thread handle is a unique value that can also be used to identify a thread to certain multi-threading library routines.


Code that is used to convert calls to one interface into calls to another.


Converting calls to one interface into calls to another by means of thunk code.

See also thunk.

title bar

The bar across the top of a window that contains the title of the window, the system menu icon and minimize, maximize and restore buttons (if appropriate).


A means of changing the state of a checkmark option. Clicking on the option toggles between the two states of the option and turns the checkmark on and off appropriately.


A set of pushbuttons labeled with icons representing application commands.

tool tip

A text label displayed next to a toolbar button whenever the mouse cursor is over the button. Toolbar buttons are always mapped to menu items, so if a menu hint is defined for the associated menu item, this is also displayed in the status bar.


Section of an on-line help file. A topic is the single entity which is displayed in a window. All of the topic can be seen by scrolling or paging. A subject can contain several topics using hotspots to cross-reference each other.


Every topic has at least one name attached to it. Local topic-names are used internally to reference the topic. These are converted to context numbers. External topic-names are held in a tree structure in the on-line help file. When a topic-name is used in a search or on entry to the On-line Help Viewer, the tree is searched for the name.

track bar

A control that consists of a slider track and slider button, used to set values that exist in a continuous range. A typical use is for a volume control, or to set a position from which to play a multimedia file.

transaction ID

A four-character name that uniquely identifies a CICS transaction.

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)

A mid-level, reliable, connection-oriented communications protocol used on the Internet that guarantees delivery of all the packets of a message in the correct order.

Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol

The standard stack of communications protocols used on the Internet.

See also:

tree root

The node to which all other nodes are directly or indirectly attached. It is the start of a program.

tree view

A control that displays an expandable hierarchical structure of text, icons or bitmaps. A typical use would be to show the structure of a file system, with icons representing individual files at the leaves of the tree.

trigger program

An executable that is used to start an application. Also known as the main executable or the root executable.



See Universal Description, Discovery and Integration (UDDI).

Uniform Resource Identifier (URI)

A compact string of characters for identifying an abstract or physical resource. A URI is either a URL or a URN. URLs and URNs are concrete entities that actually exist; a URI is an abstract superclass.

Uniform Resource Locator (URL)

The address of a resource accessible on the Internet. A URL contains the name of the protocol required to access the resource (such as http), a domain name that identifies a specific computer on the Internet (such as, and a hierarchical description of the resource.

URLs can point to HTML pages, server-side programs, or files to download from the server to the client.

Uniform Resource Name (URN)

A unique identifier that identifies an entity, but doesn't tell where it is located. A system can use a URN to look up an entity locally before trying to find it on the Web. It also allows the Web location to change, while still allowing the entity to be found.

Universal Description, Discovery and Integration (UDDI)

A standard format in XML for describing the name, location on the Web, and functions of a Web service. In deploying a Web service you can register it on an UDDI registry.

up/down control

A control that consists of two small arrow push buttons, and that can be used to increment or decrement a value in an adjacent buddy window. Up/down controls are also called spin buttons.


See Uniform Resource Identifier (URI).


See Uniform Resource Locator (URL).

user control

A Dialog System control object. An outline box defining a container for new objects not paintable by the Dialog System definition software.

user-supplied compression routine

A user-written routine used to carry out data compression. The routine is stored in a module called USRDCnn. You can specify up to 127 such routines.

See also compression routine and Micro Focus compression routine.


vertical scroll bar

See scroll bar.


A Net Express utility that runs on the mainframe. The utility reads a mainframe file with variable length records and writes a file in which the record length is stored with each record. That file is then transferred to the PC and used to recreate the original file.


A Net Express utility that runs on the mainframe. The utility reads an uploaded PC file in which the record length is stored with each record, and writes a mainframe file with variable length records.


WAR file

A JAR archive that contains a Web module.

Web browser

A program used to view material prepared for the World Wide Web. Browsers are able to interpret URL's and HTML markup, and also understand several Internet protocols.


The person responsible for a particular Web server or Web site.

Web server

Software that provides services to access the Internet, an intranet, or an extranet. A Web server hosts Web sites, provides support for HTTP and other protocols, and executes server-side programs (such as CGI scripts or servlets) that perform certain functions.

Web service

A software component deployed using theWeb Services standards and mechanisms.

Web Services

A set of standards and mechanisms that enables software components to be deployed so that they can be invoked across the Internet or an intranet, with data passed between client and component in the form of text files containing XML. This means the client application does not need to know anything about the language or deployment mechanism of the component it is invoking.

Since Web Services is the name of a facility, the term is singular.

See also Web service.

Web Services Description Language (WSDL)

A standard format in XML for describing the input data that a Web service expects from its clients and the output data it will return to its clients. In deploying a Web service you must create and deploy its WSDL file.

See also Web Services.

Web Services Meta Language (WSML)

A language, specific to the Microsoft SOAP Toolkit, that enables developers to map Web services to COM objects.

Web site

A Web server containing all your HTML documents, CGI programs etc.


In XML, well-formed describes an XML document which conforms to the rules of XML syntax. These dictate, for example, that every element within a document must be contained within the root element and that every element must open with a start tag and close with an end tag.


A character that can be used in a file-name in certain contexts; any character is considered to match the wildcard character, so that all files whose names match the rest of the string will be selected. The wildcard character is normally an asterisk (*).

widow subtree

A procedure that is never entered; its existence means your program is badly structured.


An area of the screen with visible boundaries, on which information is displayed. A window can be the same size as or smaller than the screen.

window border

See border.

window class

In API programming, the name associated with a specific window procedure. Many individual windows can share the same window procedure if they are all instances of the same window class.

window dialog

See object dialog.

window object

A window, dialog box, or message box. An object that can have further objects (controls) defined in it.

See also control.

window procedure

In API programming, a piece of code associated with a specific type of window that controls the window and processes all messages destined for the window. Window procedure is often abbreviated to winproc.

Windows NT File System

An optional file-handling system in Windows NT. When you use it file access is very efficient, and file-names are not restricted to those consisting of 8-character basename, period, and 3-character extension. Your disk must be specially formatted to use NTFS.

window title bar

See title bar.


See window procedure.


See desktop.

World Wide Web (WWW)

All the resources and users on the Internet that use the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP).

World Wide Web Consortium(W3C)

An industry consortium that seeks to promote standards for the evolution of the World Wide Web and interoperability between WWW products by producing specifications and reference software.


A program that simply accepts parameters and passes them onto another program that does the actual work. Usually the wrapper is in a different language from the latter program, and is in the same language as intended clients. The wrapper reformats the parameters in any way required by the difference in languages. For example, to make a COBOL program easy to call from Java clients, the COBOL program would be provided with a Java wrapper.


SeeWeb Services Description Language (WSDL).


See Web Services Meta Language (WSDL).


See World Wide Web (WWW).



A family of current and future document types and modules that reproduce, subset, and extend HTML 4. XHTML-family document types are based on XML and designed to work in conjunction with XML-based user agents.


See eXtensible Markup Language.

XML element

The basic unit of XML. Elements are declared in an XML schema and referenced in an XML document by sets of tags, an opening tag and a closing tag, that bear the name of the element. An opening tag begins with a < character and ends with a > character. Its paired closing tag begins with the </ characters and ends with a > character.

XML Schema Definition (XSD)

The World Wide Web Consortium standard for specifying XML schemas.

See also schema.

XML tag

See XML element.


The functionality that manipulates XML data in XSLT. XPath is a separate World Wide Web Consortium specification from XSLT.


See XML Schema Definition (XSD).


See Extensible Stylesheet Language (XSL).


See Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformation (XSLT).

XSLT processor

A software application which transforms XML data based on XSLT extensions of the XSL stylesheet. Also known as XSLT engine.



zip file

A file stored in compressed form by the Pkzip utility. Its default extension is .zip. A zip file can contain many normal files. They are extracted ("unzipped") by the Pkunzip utility.