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The section headed "!" contains entries beginning with digits, punctuation marks, and other special characters. However, file-name extensions, although shown with their preceding periods (for example, .int), appear under their initial letters.


16-bit environment
An operating system that uses 16-bit segmented addressing. Examples are DOS and Windows 3.

See also 32-bit environment.

32-bit environment
An operating system that uses 32-bit flat addressing. Examples are Windows 95 and Windows NT.

See also 16-bit environment.


abstract class
A class which does not act as a creator of instance objects. Abstract classes implement behavior for their subclasses.
accelerator key
See keyboard shortcut.
A defined task that an application performs on an object. You request actions by selecting menu choices, pressing buttons or directly manipulating objects.

See also graphical object.

active window
The window that can currently receive input from the keyboard, distinguished by an emphasized title bar and border.
ActiveX control
A name for OLE controls, replacing the former term OCX control. ActiveX controls can additionally be downloaded over an intranet or the Internet, and viewed in an ActiveX enabled Web browser, such as Internet Explorer 4.0.

See OLE control.

ActiveX layout form
A form, for display in a Web browser, which uses the Microsoft ActiveX layout control. You can place the controls anywhere on an ActiveX layout form, and your form will appear in a Web browser exactly as intended. This contrasts with a traditional HTML form, where the final appearance of your form is determined by the way a Web browser interprets HTML markup.

ActiveX layout forms can only be displayed by ActiveX-enabled Web browsers, such as Internet Explorer 4.0.

The run-time support module that executes the code generated from the Enhanced ACCEPT/DISPLAY syntax available in this COBOL system.

See also Enhanced ACCEPT/DISPLAY.

ANSI'74, ANSI'85
Abbreviations referring to the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standards covering the COBOL language. ANSI'74 is the American National Standard X3.23-1974, and ANSI'85 is the ANS X3.23-1985.
Abbreviation for Applications Programming Interface, a set of documented function calls implemented within a program - such as an operating system - that can be called by other programs to enable them to use common services.
API function calls
Calls to public entry points within a program - such as the Windows operating system - made according to a documented call interface. The calls can be made from any compatible programming language, including this COBOL system.
A set of programs and subprograms which are invoked from a single command.
Abbreviation for American Standard Code for Information Interchange, the code used for storing text in microcomputers. Each character is stored in one byte. There are two forms: standard and extended. In the standard form, seven bits are used, and 128 different characters are represented. This COBOL system uses the extended form, in which all eight bits are used and 256 different characters are represented.
The data encapsulated by an object. The only data which should be declared as part of an object's attributes is the data required to describe the object's state at any particular time. For example, the attributes of a circle are its radius and the coordinates of its center. The actual code for implementing circle objects might require other data items for calculations, but these would not be considered part of the attributes for that object.


The root class of the Object COBOL Class Library. All other Object COBOL programs supplied with this system inherit their fundamental behavior from Base.
The main part of a file-name, that is, the name excluding the path, extension and separators such as "\\" and ".".
A fixed-size picture such as those used for toolbar buttons, icons, or mouse pointers.
The current thread stops execution until some condition is satisfied. This condition varies; for example, in the case of an event, the event is posted, in the case of a mutex, the mutex is acquired, in the case of a monitor, the request privilege on the monitor can be acquired.
A user-defined index entry in an on-line help file. You set a bookmark at any point in any topic. and give it a name. This is then stored, in alphabetic order, in a list of bookmarks. Bookmarks are retained between executions of the On-line Help Builder. Accessing a defined bookmark from an alphabetically ordered list immediately displays the topic it is attached to. It is useful to attach bookmarks to frequently accessed topics. However, they can also be used as a temporary means of marking your place while you go off and browse other topics.
A visual indication of the boundaries of an object such as a window or a push button.

See also sizable border.

The limits of a table or array. The BOUND directive determines if compiled code will allow bounds to be exceeded.
A point in a program where execution will pause when you are animating it; you set breakpoints in the debugger.
browse chain
A sequence of topics that the author of an on-line help file has chained together. The chain can be browsed forward and backward by the user. Use this facility to connect together topics of a similar subject. If no browse chains are defined, the whole on-line help file becomes a browse chain, with each topic chained to the physically preceding and following topics.
A thread that can both read and write data. During a read operation, a browser needs to allow other threads to read the data. If the browser writes data, other threads must be disallowed access to the data.


A program used to view material prepared for the World Wide Web. Browsers are able to interpret URLs and HTML markup, and also understand several Internet protocols.

buddy window
An edit field that is associated with an up/down control and is used to display the current value set in the control. The buddy window receives messages directly from the up/down control.
The process of converting source code to executable code. Typically, building an application might involve preprocessing header files, syntax checking and compiling the source code, and linking the resulting object code to produce a system executable file.
A control you can use to start an action or select behavior. Examples are check boxes, pushbuttons, radio buttons and spin buttons.

See also control and pushbutton.

button bar
A set of pushbuttons labeled with text representing application commands.

See also pushbutton.


Callable File Handler
The Callable File Handler is a module in the COBOL system that processes index, sequential and relative files. As a defined API is available to this module, it is called the Callable File Handler as it can be called directly from any program (not only those written in COBOL).
An object of class CallBack stores a reference to an object and the name of a method implemented by that object. When the CallBack object is sent the "invoke" message, it executes the named method in the object it has stored.
call prototype
A definition of the syntax of a CALL statement using placeholders instead of real parameters. Call prototypes are used in header and copyfiles to enable the Compiler to check that CALL statements in your code conform to the specified syntax, and to raise an error message if they do not.
cascading style-sheet
An addition the HTML standard which enables presentation information to be separated from structure in an HTML document. Styles can be attached to HTML elements, through a STYLE attribute on an individual element, a <STYLE>...</STYLE> block which names element types in the head of an HTML document, or through separate .css files. Styles can also be defined as classes in a .css file or <STYLE>...</STYLE> block, and attached to elements through the CLASS attribute.

Stylesheets cascade through a system of precedence, whereby styles in .css files have the lowest precedence, and those declared in a STYLE attribute have the highest.

A simplified linking utility with a command-line interface. You can use Cbllink to compile and link in one step.
A linking utility that you must run before you use the Linker. Cblnames extracts all public symbols from a list of .obj files passed to it and creates another file (cbllds.obj) which must then be linked with your .obj files.
The CCITCP2 process is a registration program which is needed in order to make CCITCP connections. The process runs in background mode. Only a single CCITCP2 process needs to be active on a network in order for CCITCP to work.
character graphics
When creating a topic in an on-line help file, pictures can be created from the standard characters available. These are called character graphics. In order to maintain the vertical alignment of these graphics the lines are blocked together using the :cgraphic and :ecgraphic tags. The access and display programs ensure that the vertical alignment is maintained when a character graphic block is displayed, by specifying a monospaced font for those lines.
An instance of the class CharacterArray. A CharacterArray is an object which contains a string of any length. CharacterArrays are a convenient way of passing strings as parameters when sending messages or making CALLs.

See also messages.

check box
A square box with associated text that represents a choice. When selected, it is marked with a checkmark. You deselect it by repeating the action that selected it, for example, by clicking on it again. Check boxes are used for a set of choices that are not mutually exclusive.
check phase
The first phase of compilation, which checks the syntax of your COBOL source program and produces intermediate code.

See also intermediate code.

The two phases of compilation are sometimes treated as if they were two separate compilers. The first phase of compilation is thus sometimes called the Checker.

See also check phase.

A character used to indicate that a checkmark choice is turned on. Absence of the checkmark means the option is off.

See also toggle and checkmark choice.

checkmark choice
A choice in a menu which has two states, on or off. Clicking on the option turns the checkmark on and off, toggling between the two states.
A run unit created by another run unit.
child window
A window whose parent is another window, not the desktop. In Microsoft Windows, child windows are restricted in their properties and attributes.
Graphics or text that a user can select to modify or manipulate an object. Choices appear on menus (also called menu items) and buttons.
Pressing both mouse buttons simultaneously.
An Object COBOL program which contains the code and data descriptions for a class object and its instance objects. It is also known as the class program. A class consists of nested COBOL programs, which correspond to class object and instance object methods. Each class starts with an identifier naming the class and the class from which it inherits. When a class is loaded at run-time, the OO run-time system creates the class object.
Class-Control paragraph
Lists all the classes the program is going to use. The Class-Control paragraph is part of the Object Section, in the Environment Division. Each entry links a class name to the filename of the class executable file. The class-names are the object references which the program uses for sending messages to the class object at run-time.

If the program itself is an Object COBOL class, the Class-Control paragraph also lists its superclass, and the class itself.

See also: class, class object, object reference, and superclass.

class object
An object which is a template for the creation of instance objects of the same type. For example, the the OrderedCollection class object creates instances of OrderedCollection. The class object itself does not have the same behavior and methods as the instance objects which it creates.

By analogy, a biscuit cutter is a template for creating biscuits; however, you can't eat a biscuit cutter and you can't stamp a biscuit from another biscuit. In Object COBOL, all the methods and data for a class object and the instance objects which it creates are represented by a class program.

The class object is created at run-time when a class is loaded.

See also class.

class library
The set of classes supplied with Object COBOL. The root class of the Class Library, Base, implements basic behavior for all classes, and provides a superclass for your own classes. There are also classes to implement collections, exception handlers, CallBacks, and GUI interfaces.
class program
See class.
To press and release a mouse button (from the noise that this action makes).
click and drag
To press and hold a mouse button and move the mouse pointer in the desired direction and then release the button.
client area
The part of a window that constitutes the available workspace for an application.
client window
A secondary window opened by an application.
A storage area used to hold data (text or graphics) temporarily during cut and paste operations.

See cut and paste.

The process of copying a project and its source files to a different directory (using a different name if required) whilst keeping all the dependencies and build settings intact. Useful for creating a working version of an existing project whilst keeping the original intact.
An environment variable that contains a list of the paths of the COBOL system directories. Each path is separated from the next by a semicolon (;).
COBOL system directories
A set of directories which are automatically searched by the COBOL run-time system to locate programs. They are identified by the COBDIR environment variable. The files of the COBOL system should be kept in the COBOL system directories.
A type of object used for storing a group of elements. Collections are analogous to tables in COBOL, but unlike a table, a collection is not necessarily fixed to an initial size, but can grow as more elements are added. The elements in a collection are usually objects, although you can also store certain types of string and numeric data. The Object COBOL Class Library provides many different types of collection, which organize data in different ways.
Component Object Model. An alternative name for Microsoft&quote;s OLE technology.

See OLE.

combination box
Also known as combo box or selection list box.

See selection list box.

Common Communications Interface (CCI)
The Common Communications Interface (CCI) is an application programming interface (API) which enables application designers to build platform and protocol independent communications into their applications.
Common Gateway Interface (CGI)
Common Gateway Interface - a standard for external gateway programs to interface with information servers such as HTTP servers. CGI programs are usually run when an end-user enters some information into an HTML or ActiveX layout form displayed on a Web browser, and clicks a Submit button. The CGI program receives the information from the form, and sends back a result for display on the Web browser.

CGI and CGI program are terms often used to describe any kind of server-side program. which runs on a Web server. Net Express tools create CGI programs, which you can convert to other Web server APIs (ISAPI or NSAPI) by recompiling and rebuilding.

The component that checks the syntax of your COBOL source program, and converts it to native code.
Compiler phases
The Compiler operates in two phases. The first phase is called the check phase; during this phase, the compiler checks the syntax, and creates intermediate code from your source code. The second phase is the generate phase; during this phase, the Compiler generates object code or generated code as required.
An object which can send and receive signals. Any object can be made into a component by sending it the "makeComponent" message. Components operate in a way analogous to microchips; they define a set of inputs and outputs. A component can send output signals regardless of whether or not there is another component receiving those signals, without causing a run-time error.

See also object, signal.

Component Object Model
An alternative name for Microsoft&quote;s OLE technology.

See OLE..

compression routine
A routine that you call from your program to carry out data compression or key compression on a file. Micro Focus supplies a compression routine and you can provide your own compression routines.

See also Micro Focus compression routine and user-supplied compression routine.

context menu
See popup menu.
context number
Every topic in an on-line help file has a unique context number that is used to reference that topic. The context number is used as an index into a look-up table held in the file which defines the address of each topic in the file.

You can choose the context number and define it using a .define tag. The numbers are purely arbitrary and do not reflect the structure of the file. The sequence of the topics in the source files is the only structure recognized.

More than one context number can point to the same topic.

An object that enables you to select choices or type information. Examples are entry fields, list boxes, and buttons such as check boxes, pushbuttons, radio buttons and spin buttons.

See also button.

A token consisting of a name and value, passed to a Web browser by a server-side programs. Cookies are used by server-side programs to maintain application state. For example, you could store a user id in a cookie, and use it to access an indexed file containing information about the selections a user had made in an online shopping application.
A file containing text, which the Compiler inserts into the main body of a COBOL program when it processes a COPY statement in that program.
Common Object Request Broker Architecture: a standard specified by the Object Management Group (OMG) that defines an open, interoperable middleware standard. It specifies how an Object Request Broker (ORB) is used to establish client/server relationships between components written in different languages in a language transparent manner. CORBA is part of the OMG\rquotes Object Management Architecture (OMA).
A set of run units consisting of a parent run unit and all the run units created from it.
critical section
An area of code in a multi-threading program that accesses shared data. Critical sections can be protected by various synchronization primitives.
cross-reference list
A special sort of fixed-lines topic in an on-line help file where each line contains a cross-reference to another topic. Such a topic is defined using the .list tag. It must not contain any formatting tags. When displayed, a full width cursor appears. This can be used to select a line to which you want to refer.

The first word on the line is used as the cross-reference name unless it is defined as a hotspot, in which case the hotspot cross-reference is used.

See cascading style-sheet.
current directory
The directory that the operating system, when looking for a file, will search first if no path is specified.
current record pointer
The current record pointer (CRP) is used to determine which record will be returned by a sequential read operation. The CRP is set by OPEN, READ and START.
current statement
When debugging, the statement currently being executed or, if none is currently being executed, the statement to be executed next.
A graphical image that shows you where text will appear on the screen when you press keys, or where you can make a selection.
An editing operation to delete text from a file and move it to the clipboard, prior to pasting it back in a different location.

See also paste.


data compression
Specified via the DATACOMPRESS directive in a $SET statement, data compression enables you to save disk space by compressing the data in a sequential or indexed file.
Data File Converter
A Net Express data tool that allows you to convert files between different formats.
Data File Editor
A data tool that allows you to edit data files.
Data Tools
A set of tools supplied with Net Express for working with data files.
The screen area on which the windows of a user's environment appear.
dialog box
A window that can contain controls, and asks for input from the user.
dialog unit
A device-independent unit of measurement related to the size of the System font in Windows. For horizontal measurement, a dialog unit is equal to one-quarter of the average character width of the System font. For vertical measurement, a dialog unit is equal to one-eighth of the average character height of the System font. Dialog boxes and their controls are sized in dialog units to ensure that the dialog box displays correctly regardless of the user's screen resolution.
dictionary file
A file used by the debugger. It contains information about a program's structure and contents. The Compiler creates the dictionary file in the first phase of compilation, when checking the syntax. A dictionary file has the filename extension .idy, and is often referred to an .idy file.
Shown with reduced contrast; a way of indicating choices on a menu that are not available in the current context. Also called grayed.
Keywords used to control compilation and animation.
directives file
An ASCII text file containing one or more directives on one or more lines.
To attach a dockable window to the edge of the development environment main window.
dockable window
A window that can be displayed either as an ordinary window with a border on the desktop, or as a separate pane of the development environment main window. The status of the dockable window is changed by right-clicking on it and clicking Allow docking. When this is checked and the window is moved near an edge of the main window, it becomes a pane of the main window attached to that edge.
Document Object Model
An object-orientated view of a Web page and its elements, part of Dynamic HTML, in which each page element is viewed as an object with a name and attributes which can be changed dynamically as the user interacts with the page.
Domain Name Service (DNS)
A hierarchical naming system that uses a combination of text names separated by periods to create a unique name.

For example;

To press and release a mouse button twice in rapid succession. Used to select an item or object and perform the default action on it (for example, double clicking on a window's system menu button closes that window).
To press and hold a mouse button, move the mouse pointer, then release the mouse button.
drag and drop
To press and hold a mouse button while the mouse pointer is on an object, move the mouse pointer, then release the mouse button. This moves the object to the new position. A means of moving icons or data from a source to a destination.
dynamic binding
The object which will receive a message is unknown when an Object COBOL program is compiled. The Object COBOL system determines the receiver at run-time.
Dynamic HTML (DHTML)
A collective name for some new HTML features that give Web authors more control over the appearance of their Web pages and enable them to create Web pages that can change in response to user interaction. Both the Netscape Navigator 4.0 browser and Microsoft Internet Explorer 4.0 browser support DHTML. However, their definitions of exactly what it constitutes are slightly different. Both have submitted their proposals for inclusion in HTML 4.0, the definition of which is being co-ordinated by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). DHTML provides an object-oriented view of a Web page and its elements; this is known as the Document Object Model.
dynamic link library
An executable file in an industry standard format. Dynamic link library files have the file extension .dll, and are often known as .dll files. A dynamic link library is created by linking an .obj file.
dynamic linking
A method of linking in which a subprogram is loaded into memory is loaded into memory when it is first called. During linking, the call is replaced by code that causes the name of the subprogram to be passed to a run-time routine. At run-time, this routine searches for the subprogram, first to see if it is already loaded, and, if not, if it exists in a dynamically linked executable of the same name. When found, and loaded if necessary, control is passed to the subprogram.

See also static linking.

dynamic loading
A method of loading a program into memory when it is not linked to an application. A dynamically loaded program is only loaded when it is called. Dynamic loading is used for .int and .gnt files.
dynamic run-time system binding
{\lang2057 A method of linking that enables a program to load and use any run-time system supported by dynamic run-time system binding.
dynamic subprogram
A subprogram which is linked in such a way that it will not be required at link time, but can be accessed dynamically when it is referenced at run time.
dynamically assigned file
A file whose name is specified to the COBOL program via a data item referenced in the ASSIGN clause of the SELECT statement.

See also externally assigned file.


edit field
A text box in which the user can enter information. Also called an entry field.
Embedded HTML (EHTML)
HTML{\v gl_HTML that is embedded within a COBOL program. It is delimited by EXEC HTML and END-EXEC statements.
In OO programming, an object's data is said to be encapsulated when you can only access or manipulate the data through the methods the object provides. To invoke a particular method, you send the object a message.
The ACCEPT and DISPLAY syntax available with this system has been extended beyond the ANSI standard to allow sophisticated handling of the screen and keyboard.

Such ACCEPT and DISPLAY syntax is referred to as enhanced or extended.

See also Adis.

entry field
A text box in which the user can enter information.
entry point
A labelled place in a piece of code where execution can begin.
Something done by a user, such as pressing a key, which causes a message to be sent to a window procedure or, in OO programming, an object.


A synchronization primitive that is used to lock a critical section so that the section is used exclusively by the thread that locked it.

event handler
A piece of code for processing an event. An event handler for a window or dialog box is an Object COBOL method. An event handler for an HTML or ActiveX layout form is written in JavaScript or JScript and embedded in the HTML page.
event item
See event.
A processing error at run-time. Objects should be designed to raise exceptions whenever they encounter an error condition. The supplied Class Library provides a default exception handling mechanism which reports the error and shuts down the application. You can attach your own excepti on handling mechanisms to any class or instance object if you want a more sophisticated way of responding to exceptions.
.exe file
See executable file.
executable code
Code that can be executed. The types of executable code are system executable code, dynamic link libraries, generated code and intermediate code.
executable file
A file that contains executable code, and thus can be run or executed. An executable file that can be invoked from the command line is called the trigger or main executable file, and is always a system executable file. An executable file that is dynamically linked to another program is called a dynamic link library. Intermediate code files and generated code files are executable files that can be dynamically loaded, and do not have to be linked.
explicit call
A call made from a program in which the full filename of the called program is specified; for example:
call "myprog.gnt"

Compare with implicit call.

explicit filename
When called from a program, a full filename including the extension; for example:
call "myprog.gnt"

Compare with implicit filename.

The part of a file-name that follows the period (.). In NTFS it follows the last period.
external file
A file that is EXTERNAL as defined by the ANSI'85 standard. It can be accessed by any program running in the run unit. Do not confuse external files with externally assigned files.
external topic-name
Used in on-line help files if a topic is going to be accessed from an external source. These names are held in a tree structure in the on-line help file. When a topic-name is used in a search or on entry to the On-line Help Viewer, the tree is searched for the name.
externally assigned file
A file whose name is specified to the COBOL program via a mechanism outside the program - such as an operating system command - rather than in the ASSIGN clause of the SELECT statement.

See also dynamically assigned file.


An area on a screen defined to display or accept an elementary data item. The term is sometimes used to refer to the elementary data item.
File Handling Redirector (Fhredir)
The File Handling Redirector is a module in the COBOL system that can be used to intercept I/O requests to indexed, sequential and relative files. Depending upon how the File Handling Redirector is configured, these requests are passed directly to the Callable File Handler or to a Fileshare Server running on a remote machine. It is also possible to call the File Handling Redirector directly as it conforms to the same API as the Callable File Handler.
Fileshare Client
Fileshare Client is the client portion of Fileshare Version 2.

A Fileshare Client is a user program making I/O requests to data files via the File Handling Redirector module.

Fileshare Server
Fileshare Server is the server portion of Fileshare Version 2.

A Fileshare Server accepts requests across a network from a Fileshare Client, processes them by calling a local copy of the Callable File Handler and then returns the result to the Fileshare Client.

fixed-lines block
A block of lines in a topic of an on-line help file that is displayed exactly as written with no formatting. If no vertical alignment is needed, such a block is defined using the :lines and :elines tags. If vertical alignment is to be maintained, you must define the block as a character graphic.
Fix File Index
A Net Express data tool that allows you to rebuild the index of a corrupt indexed file.
A topic in an on-line help file that is formatted dynamically at display time to fit in the sides of the topic window so that no horizontal scrolling is necessary. Fixed-lines blocks can extend beyond the right-hand edge of the window.
See input focus.
frame control
A rectangular border that can be used to frame other controls on a dialog box.
An HTML element which enables you to define the number and size of vertical and horizontal frames inside an HTML page. Each frame displays a separate HTML page as a subwindow inside the frameset.
A protocol used by several different types of object co-operating to implement a particular function. An individual class or instance object has a public interface which describes the way you communicate with that object. A framework describes the way in which different types of object interact together. For example, the public interface to an OrderedCollection describes how you can add, retrieve and remove elements. The Collection framework describes how OrderedCollections (and other types of collection) communicate with the objects they are storing as elements.


See control.
general protection fault
See protection violation.
generated code
Executable code in a Micro Focus proprietary format. It is produced by the Compiler during the second phase of compilation, and is optimized intermediate code.
generated code file
An executable file containing generated code. It is produced by the Compiler during the second phase of compilation, and is optimized intermediate code. Generated code files have the extension .gnt, and are often known as .gnt files.
generate phase
The second phase of compilation, which converts intermediate code to native code (also called generated code).

See also generated code.

The Compiler is sometimes treated as if it is two separate compilers. The second phase of compilation is thus sometimes called the Generator.

See also generate phase.

.gnt file
See generated code file.
graphical object
An item (on a screen) that you can manipulate as a single unit, such as a pointer, icon, window or menu.
graphical user interface
A user interface in which you control the working of a program by selecting icons and by selecting items from windows such as pulldown menus and dialog boxes; generally you do this by clicking with a mouse.
See dimmed.
group box
A title and box drawn around a group of controls. This box is used to visually emphasize a group of related controls.
guard page
A memory page (4096 bytes on Intel processors) that has special permissions set on it so that it cannot be read or written to. By placing guard pages before or after pages assigned to object storage, the run-time system can catch attempts to read or write beyond the ends of object data.
See graphical user interface.


header bar
A control used at the top of a list box to label columns in the list box. The user can change the size of columns by dragging the header bar borders. Push button-style header bars are often used to provide a mechanism for sorting the items in the list alphabetically by values in any of the columns.
A visual means (reverse video or color change) of indicating that an object or an item is selected.
High Performance File System
An optional file-handling system in Windows NT that is compatible with OS/2. When you use it file access is very efficient, and filenames are not restricted to those consisting of 8-character basename, period, and 3-character extension. Your disk must be specially formatted to use HPFS.
history list
A list used to store the title of each on-line help topic displayed. By accessing the list, any topic previously visited can be identified and revisited. The history list holds the last 40 items visited in the current session.
home topic
The first topic in the first source file used to create an on-line help file. The home topic is displayed whenever the On-line Help Viewer is specified with a filename but no topic-name. Additionally, the Home function causes the home topic to be displayed. The home topic should always contain a very brief overview of the information supplied in the on-line help file, and provide hotspots to enable the user to get to the various parts of the file.
horizontal scroll bar
See scroll bar.
host variable
A COBOL field that is referenced by OpenESQL statements. Host variables are the primary means by which data is transferred between an SQL database and COBOL applications.
A keystroke (such as Alt+I) which you can use to select a menu choice when that choice is visible.
An area in a topic of an on-line help file which, when activated, causes another topic to be displayed. Hotspots should be identified by using consistent highlighting.
See High Performance File System.
HTML form
A form for display in a Web browser. HTML provides form elements, which enable you to add controls such as entry fields and buttons to an HTML page. HTML forms can be displayed in any form-enabled Web browser.
HyperText Markup Language (HTML)
A markup language for displaying documents on the Internet or an intranet. HTML documents can contain links (URLs) to jump to other documents, download files, or run server-side programs.
HyperText Transmission Protocol (HTTP)
A communications protocol for retrieving HTML pages over the Internet or an intranet.


A small picture representing an object or a selection choice (for example a window, project, tool, program, document, set of data, container). Windows can be minimized (reduced to icons) to save space on the desktop.
See resource identifier.
Interface Definition Language: part of the CORBA standard specified by the Object Management Group (OMG). It is used to define an abstract definition of an interface to a distributed server component. An IDL compiler is used to generate specific language bindings for the language that a component (client or server) is written in. IDL is a key component within CORBA and enables it to be a language transparent standard. This means that each individual component within a distributed application can be written without any knowledge of the language that any other component is written in.
.idy file
See dictionary file.
implicit call
A call made from a program in which only the basename (that is the, filename without the file extension) of the called program is specified; for example:
call "myprog"

For implicit calls, the run-time system searches for files in a particular order (for example, first by seing if there is a file of filename.gnt, then, and so on).

Compare with explicit call.

implicit filename
A filename called from a program in which only the basename, (that is the, filename without the file extension) is specified; for example:
call "myprog"

The run-time system searches for implicit filenames in a particular order (for example, first by seeing if there is a file of filename.gnt, then, and so on).

Compare with explicit filename.

in-place activation
An OLE server started inside the OLE container window. When in-place activation occurs, the server can add its own menus and toolbars to the container.

See also OLE container, OLE server.

inactive window
An open window that is not receiving input from the keyboard. Distinguished from the active window by a dimmed border.
A file containing text, which the Compiler inserts into the main body of a COBOL program when it processes an INCLUDE statement in that program.

See also copyfile.

The mechanism by which a subclass has access to the functionality in its superclass. A subclass always inherits all the methods of its superclass, which it can override if necessary. A subclass can also inherit the data of its superclass, although this depends on the settings in the CLASS-ID header of both the subclass and the superclass. By identifying different types of objects which have common functionality, you can implement the common methods for that functionality in a single class and inherit it in any number of subclasses.

Each class inherits all the methods of its superclass, so a class ultimately inherits all methods all the way up to a root class. A class object inherits the class methods of its superclass, and an instance object inherits the instance methods of its superclass. In this Object COBOL implementation, a class has only one immediate superclass. The superclass is named in the INHERITS clause of the CLASS-ID header.

See also subclass, superclass.

input focus
A state of the system that indicates which window receives keyboard events. A window has the focus if keyboard and mouse events are sent to it.
input socket
Defines a set of signals which a component can receive. A single component can have many input sockets, and use each each socket to connect to a different component.

See also component, signal .

The instructions and data that result from a single call of a recursive routine.
See Instance Object.
instance object
A single occurrence of an object of a particular class. Instance objects are created by sending an appropriate message (usually "new") to a class object. For example, to create a window for display on the desktop, you send the "new" message to the Window class object. The methods and data for instance objects are defined in the object program, which is nested within the class program. The object program starts with the header OBJECT and finishes with END OBJECT.
To run a program by making a single call to the program. The instructions that are executed together with the set of data produced by the unique call to the program are called an instance of the program.
intermediate code
Code produced when a source program is syntax-checked. Intermediate code is executable code in a Micro Focus proprietary format.
intermediate code file
An executable file containing intermediate code. An intermediate code file has the filename extension .int, and is often referred to an .int file.
.int file
See intermediate code file.
intrinsic class
A class corresponding to a COBOL intrinsic data type. These classes are used as templates so that you can send messages to COBOL intrinsic data using the INVOKE ... AS... construct.
The process by which a Java Bean class is read in order to create a representation of the Java Bean's API. It is carried out by the Introspector class, which is part of the Java Core Reflection API.
Send a message to an object. Object COBOL defines a new verb, INVOKE, to enable you to send messages.


JAR file
A Java Archive file, used for packaging a Java applet together with any other classes, sound or image files it needs to run.
Java is a simple, robust, object-oriented, platform-independent multi-threaded, dynamic general-purpose programming environment. Its main use is for creating applets (small applications) which run inside an end-user's browser, using their machine's resources.
An object-oriented scripting language for use with Web browsers. JavaScript code can be embedded on an HTML page, HTML form or ActiveX layout form. JavaScript enables you to make a page or form interactive, responding to user events (such as mouse-clicks) without the need to run a server-side program. Not all browsers support JavaScript, Netscape Navigator V2.0 or later and Microsoft Internet Explorer 3.0 or later both support JavaScript. Do not confuse JavaScript with Java; although they have similar syntax, Java is a full programming language which supports the creation of sophisticated applications.
Abbreviation for just-in-time, see just-in-time debugging.
A variant of JavaScript developed by Microsoft for use with Internet Explorer Web browsers.
just-in-time debugging
A technique for debugging a program where the debugger is started only when the program fails.


Abbreviation for kilobyte, a measure of size of computer storage, equal to 1024 bytes.
key compression
Specified via the KEYCOMRESS directive in a $SET statement, key compression enables you to save disk space by compressing the keys of an indexed file.
keyboard shortcut
A key that provides an immediate short-cut to a function. For example, Ctrl+O is equivalent to clicking File, Open on the Net Express menu. Where keyboard shortcuts are attached to menu items, they are shown right-justified against the items to which they apply.
keyboard shortcut scheme
A collection of keyboard shortcuts.


On a structure diagram, a node with no subordinate nodes.
.lib file
A file containing binary objects that can be linked into a system executable file. A common type of .lib file contains indirection references to calls in a dynamic link library, and is called an import library. The exact format of the file is platform-specific.
A file with a file extension of .lbr containing a set of other files or programs. The library file can be opened by the COBOL system or a user application to make those files or programs accessible.
The utility used to link .obj files to create system executable files or dynamic link libraries.
Using the Linker to link a program to other programs, or to a run-time system.
A structure in a topic in an on-line help file that is displayed in a specific way. Each list consists of a set of items, the start of each item being identified by an appropriate tag. The start and end of each list is also identified by a tag. A list item can contain further lists. The presentation of these embedded lists reflects the depth of embedding.

There are several types of lists: simple lists, unordered lists, ordered lists, definition lists and parameter lists.

list box
See simple list box.
A faster form of static linking, in which calls are resolved at link-time. Calls are litlinked if call convention 8 is used on the call, or if the program is compiled using the LITLINK compiler directive. As the name implies, a litlinked call must use a literal rather than a data-name.
local topic-name
A topic-name that can only be referenced from a single on-line help file. Such a name is identified by a leading "at" character (@). The On-line Help Builder converts all local topic-names to context numbers. Local topic-names cannot start with a digit.
logical event
An event defined for a particular object, and raised by the object as a result of an event from the end-user. For example, a dialog box might define logical events to represent OK and Cancel, raising OK when the OK button is clicked and Cancel when the Cancel button is clicked. The parent of the dialog box can register interest in the OK and Cancel logical events, so that it can act on these events without knowing the details of the dialog box controls.

See also event.


machine code
See native code.
main executable file
The executable file that is invoked from the command line to start an application. Also sometimes known as the root executable file.
To enlarge a window to its maximum size (the full size of the screen).
maximize button
A button labeled with a bitmap in the top right corner of a window. Pushing this button maximizes the window.
Abbreviation for megabyte, a measure of size of computer storage, equal to 1024 kilobytes.
memory leak
Memory no longer needed, but not deallocated by the OO system. An application should finalize an object when it is no longer required. When an application no longer has a handle to an object which still exists, the object is effectively unreachable, and can no longer be finalized. This is a memory leak.
A list of the command choices available in a window.
menu bar
A set of pulldown menus providing access to the commands available for the window.
menu choice
See choice.
menu hint
A short description of the effect of a menu item, displayed in the status bar of the window whenever the menu item is highlighted.
menu item
See choice.
In object-oriented programming, a message invokes a method when sent to an object. The method invoked matches the message sent. The text of the message is known as the method selector. The INVOKE verb enables you to send messages. For example:
INVOKE anOrange "peel" returning segments.

The method selector "peel" invokes the peel method in anOrange. Data is returned from the method in data item segments.

See also method, invoke.

In API programming, a message consists of a symbolic name and associated data parameters. A message is put in an application's message queue to inform it that a certain event has occurred.

message binding
Ensuring that each message is delivered to the right object. Binding can be dynamic or static. In a statically bound object-oriented programming system (OOPS), the receiver of a message is determined at compile-time. In a dynamically bound OOPS, the receiver of a message is determined at run-time. This release of Object COBOL supports dynamic binding only.
message box
A special type of dialog box that provides information or notes the state of work in progress, gives a warning, asks a question or highlights an error.
message loop
In API programming, a loop structure in the main window procedure that retrieves messages from an application's message queue and relays them (posts them) to the appropriate object for further processing.
message queue
A first in-first out buffer that stores messages for an object until the object is ready to process them. In API programming, the message queue for an application is set up by the operating system in response to the application's initialization request.
Enables the creation of class objects. All class objects are instances of the metaclass object. In Object COBOL, the metaclass is Behavior, which is part of the Class Library. All classes inherit the instance methods of Behavior, even root classes, because all classes are instances of Behavior.

See also class object, instance object, root class.

Code manipulating or interrogating the data within an object. In Object COBOL, each method is coded as a nested program within a class.
Micro Focus compression routine
A Micro Focus routine used to carry out data compression. It does it through a form of run length encoding. The routine is stored in a module called CBLDCnnn. You can specify up to 127 such routines.

See also compression routine and user-supplied compression routine.

To reduce a window to its minimum size (an icon).
minimize button
A pushbutton labeled with a bitmap, appearing to the left of the maximize icon in the top right corner of a window. Pushing this button minimizes the window.
modal dialog box
A dialog box that requires the end-user to supply information or cancel the dialog box before the application can continue. When a modal dialog box is active, the end-user can't set focus to any of the other windows or dialog boxes in the application.
modeless dialog box
A dialog box that allows the end-user to supply information and return to the previous task without closing the dialog box.
A synchronization primitive that enables critical sections to be accessed by multiple threads for some operations (such as reading data), but to be locked by a single thread for exclusive operations (such as writing data).
mouse event
A change in the state of a mouse, such as a button being pressed or the mouse being moved.
mouse pointer
The visual representation of the mouse pointing device. The shape may vary depending on the actions taking place.
multiple selection
The ability to select more than one item (for example, in a list) where the items are not necessarily contiguous.
A term used to describe:
multi-user environment
An environment where more than one user can be active simultaneously.
A synchronization primitive that is used to lock critical sections so that the section is used exclusively by the thread that locked it.


native code
The code that the microprocessor understands directly without the need for an interpreter. Also known as native machine code. It will only run on machines containing the appropriate microprocessor.
See Windows NT file system.
null-terminated string
A literal which ends with x"00". You can create this easily in Object COBOL by prefixing any literal with the letter z.

For example:

01 aName      pic x(5) z"Fred".


move z"I'm a literal" to string

Allow one extra byte for the null character in any data-item which stores a null-terminated string.


An encapsulation of data and methods. The only way to access an object's data is by sending it messages. You can also think of an object as intelligent data, which includes implementations for the operations (methods) appropriate to itself.

There are two types of object: classes and instances. A class object is created when you register a class; an instance is created whenever you send an appropriate message to the class object which defines that instance. The Object COBOL run-time system allocates each object its own data area in memory. There can be many instance objects of the same type within a run-unit, but there can only be one class object of each type.

object code
Code produced by the Compiler in standard format for use with the Linker.
Object code file
A file containing object code. Object code files have the file extension .obj, and are often referred to as .obj files.
object handle
An ID or reference by which you can access a particular object. Every object is assigned a unique handle when it gets created at run-time. You always give the object handle when you send a message; the OO RTS uses the handle to find the object which should receive the message. You store object handles in data items of type object reference.

See also: object reference.

object interface
The object interface is the list of methods implemented by an object, together with descriptions of the parameters passed to and from the object by each method.

See also: public interface.

Object-oriented Run-time System
Supports features of object oriented programming not covered by the standard COBOL run-time system (for example, object creation and destruction).
object reference
A COBOL data item, declared as object reference which can hold an object handle. You can also pass object references as parameters when you send a message or make a COBOL CALL, in effect enabling you to pass objects between different parts of an application. Object references are untyped, so the same data item can hold an object reference for any class or instance object. That is, there is no distinction between the type of object reference declared to hold an instance of one class or another.

See also: object handle.

.obj file
See object code file.
OCX control
See OLE control.
Object Linking and Embedding. A Windows protocol enabling applications to cooperate with each other. Also known as COM (Component Object Model).
OLE automation
The part of OLE that deals with basic messaging between objects. An OLE automation client can start and send requests to an OLE automation server.

See also OLE.

OLE container
An OLE enabled application that acts as an OLE client to enable the embedding of documents created with by OLE servers.

See also OLE.

OLE control
A custom control built on OLE technology. Custom controls can encapsulate quite complex functionality. For example, you can purchase grid controls that enable you to embed spreadsheet types of functionality into your application. OLE controls are also known as ActiveX controls.

See also ActiveX, control, OLE.

OLE server
An OLE enabled application that enables an OLE client to embed a document created with the server inside a document created with the client. OLE servers and OLE clients have to work inside a more precisely defined framework than OLE automation servers and clients.

See also OLE, OLE automation, OLE container.

on-line help
A set of screens of information that you can display while working. Each screen briefly lists and explains the functions available on the menu currently displayed.
on-line help file
A file with extension .hnf that is created by the On-line Help Builder from an on-line help source file.
See Object COBOL Run-time System.
operation code
Also known as an opcode. A code consisting of two hexadecimal characters that specify an exact operation.
operating system support
See run-time support modules.
optimized code
Native code produced by the Compiler. COBOL code is first converted into an intermediate code, and then optimized into native code. There are two basic levels of optimization. The low level produces machine code with a direct correspondence to the lines of source code. The higher level performs additional compression, resulting in faster and smaller code.

Intermediate code can be embedded directly in an .obj file, producing much smaller code. This is an unoptimized .obj file.

ORBIX is a CORBA based middleware platform from Iona on which developers can create and run distributed applications. Orbix applications can be written in a variety of different languages, such as COBOL, C++, or Java, and interact together in a trans parent manner at an enterprise level across a broad range of different platforms. For additional information about ORBIX, refer to the Iona ORBIX home page at {\b\f2
A type of collection. You can either "add" elements to the end of an OrderedCollection, or "atPut" them to a particular indexed location. As you "add" elements, an OrderedCollection grows in size to accommodate them.


Put information directly onto the surface of a window. You can use painting to write text in any size or font available on your Windows system, as well as to draw lines, curves, filled shapes and bitmaps.
A run unit that has created another run unit or a window that has opened another window.
An editing operation to insert text from the clipboard at the destination cursor. (Prior to pasting, text may be cut or copied from another location.)

See also cut.

A command used on Windows to specify a set of directories that should be searched when a program is invoked. The term PATH is used to refer to this list. A file is said to be "on the PATH" if it is in one of the directories named in this command. To see the PATH list currently set in your system, enter PATH on a command line.
The part of a file-name up to and including the last "\\" character. It can start with a device specification followed by a colon (:).
The ability of the Object COBOL run-time system to remember the state of all objects in the system between runs. It does this by storing all objects in an indexed file. Persistence is an Early Release feature of Object COBOL.
The lines of code encompassed by a single PERFORM statement.
The data type and length of a COBOL data item, as declared in the source program.
See mouse pointer.
The method invoked by a particular message depends on the object which receives it. For example, you could implement several different classes of bank account object (checking, savings, high rate). All bank account objects would respond to the message "printStatement". However, each different type of account would implement "printStatement" differently, in a way appropriate to itself - savings accounts show interest paid, but checking accounts don't. Polymorphism enables you to send the same message ("printStatement") to any type of account object and get appropriate results.
popup menu
A menu that gives no indication of its presence but pops up when you perform a particular action, such as right-clicking the mouse.
popup window
A window that gives no indication of its presence but pops up when you perform a particular action.
primary window
A window that is directly on the desktop, that is, not the child of any other window.

See also secondary window.

Producer-Consumer problem
A class of problem in multi-threaded applications where a thread that produces data, and another thread that consumes that data, need to be synchronized so that when the consuming thread is active it always has data to operate on.
programmable switch
A switch that can be used to switch on or off a corresponding COBOL switch defined in the SPECIAL NAMES paragraph of the program.

See also switch.

progress bar
A control consisting of a rectangle which can be filled with colored blocks to indicate a proportional measurement. A progress bar is typically used to indicate the progress of a process that takes an appreciable amount of time, such as the proportion of a number of files that have been copied.
A file with the extension .app together with an associated .idx file that contain details of the source files used in an application, dependencies between the files, and instructions for building the application.
An attribute of an object. In the Component Object Model (COM), which is the basis for OLE and OLE automation, properties are exposed as part of the interface to an ActiveX object, so that clients can get or put the value of a property.
protect mode
The mode of the 386, 486, and Pentium processors which provides a large (not limited to 1Mb) address space for programs to run in, and a protection mechanism which allows an operating system to protect itself and applications from each other. This mode is used by Windows 95 and Windows NT.
protection violation
An error condition detected by Windows 95 or Windows NT indicating that an application has tried to access memory or devices that have not been allocated to it by the operating system.
proxy object
An object in one process or domain, which acts to forward messages to an object that is running in a different process or domain. Objects can send messages to the proxy, without needing to be aware that the actual object they are sending messages to is located elsewhere.

For example, the OLE automation support in Object COBOL enables you to access ActiveX objects, which could be running in a separate process, or even on a separate machine, as though they were Object COBOL objects. When an Object COBOL program requests an ActiveX object, the Object COBOL run-time system passes back a handle to a proxy object in an OBJECT REFERENCE. When you send a message to a proxy object, it is forwarded transparently to the ActiveX object. The data types for parameters and results sent between Object COBOL programs and ActiveX objects are also mapped automatically.

proxy server
A Web server which sits between an intranet and the Internet. Requests for web pages are sent via the proxy server, which then routes them appropriately. Proxy servers are used for a number of reasons, for example, to improve performance of the internal network, or to block access to certain sites.
public interface
A subset of an object interface, listing only the methods which should be used from outside the object. The public interface does not list any of the object's private or protected methods, which are only intended for use from inside the object or from its subclasses.

See also: object interface.

The process of copying to and rebuilding on a UNIX system an application developed on Net Express. The UNIX Option enables you to publish applications on UNIX systems.
The tool, provided by the UNIX Option, that enables you to publish applications.
pulldown menu
A menu that appears when you select a choice on a menu bar.
A rectangular button, labeled with text or with an icon, that represents an action. The action starts when you select the button. When selected, the button appears to be pushed in on the screen.

See also button.


radio button
A circular button labeled with text alongside it. When the radio button is selected, all other radio buttons in the same group box are deselected. The circle is partially filled in when selected. Radio buttons are used for a set of mutually exclusive choices.
Record Layout Editor
A Net Express data tool that allows you to define record layouts for your data file, thus enabling you to edit individual fields.
rectangle control
A solid rectangular block that can be used as a background for other controls on a dialog box.
Recursion occurs when a piece of code is executed before a previous execution of the same code has terminated; for example, when a program calls itself. Code that is capable of being executed in this way is called re-entrant; its instructions must be invariable, and it must define its variables in local-storage so that data from one instance of the code does not interfere with data from another instantiation. Recursion is common when using shared library routines, such as in object-oriented programming, API programming, and when packaging code in dynamic link libraries.
re-entrant code
Code that is capable of being shared between two instances of a program because its instructions are invariant and its variables are stored in such a way as to prevent data from one instance being confused with data from another.
To let go of a mouse button that has been pressed and held down. Important in a drag and drop operation since it is the release that determines where the dragged item is dropped.
Making visible on the desktop. All graphical objects provide some way of defining their appearance. When you are using objects from the GUI class library, rendering is usually transparent to the programmer.
resize border
See sizable border.
Non-executable binary data that is linked into a system executable file. Typically, the data defines parts of a program's graphical user interface, such as menus, dialog boxes and icons.
resource identifier
An arbitrary integer value used to identify a particular resource within a program. The program usually refers to a control by its symbolic name which is associated with a resource identifier in a 78-level item in a copyfile. The copyfile is produced automatically by the Resource Manager.
resource script
A plain text file with extension .rc that defines the resources used in an application. If the resource is inherently binary; for example, a bitmap, the resource script contains a reference to the file containing the resource definition. The resource script file is automatically compiled by the Resource Manager to the binary .res file needed for linking when a project is rebuilt.
To return an icon or a maximized window to its normal size.
To press the right mouse button.
The main directory on a disk or system, that is, the directory to which all other directories are subordinate.
root class
A class which is not descended from any other class. The CLASS-ID for such a class has no INHERITS phrase.
See run-time system.
rubber band
A sizable box for enclosing a group of objects or a portion of text prior to applying a particular function to all of them, for example, when selecting a block of text to be cut.
run-time support modules
Separate files containing routines to support advanced features of the COBOL language. Examples are: the module that handles indexed and external files, Extfh; and the extended ACCEPT/DISPLAY handler, Adis.
run-time switch
A switch that is acted on by the run-time system.

See also switch.

run-time system
The support modules needed by a COBOL program to enable it to run. It provides an interface between the program and the operating system.
run-time tunables
Control the behavior of certain aspects of the COBOL run-time system.
run unit
A run unit is a main program, as invoked from the command line, plus any subprograms that it calls, directly or through other subprograms called by it. A run unit is an independent entity that can be executed without communicating with any other run unit.


sample programs
The programs supplied with the COBOL system as examples to demonstrate use of the system. Some are referred to by tutorials in the help.
scroll bar
A graphical device used to change your view of the contents of a window. A scroll bar contains a scroll area, a slider and scroll arrows. The position of the slider in the scroll bar indicates approximately the position in the file containing the data. The window contents can be moved by:
secondary window
A window that is not directly on the desktop, that is, that is the child of another window.

See also primary window.

selection list box
A text box combining an entry field and a simple list box.
selection cursor
A dotted-outline box that moves as you indicate your choice. It identifies the object that you can select.
Reserved variable which contains the object handle of the object in which it occurs. Used to enable objects to send messages to themselves.

If you send a message to SELF from object A, object A is the receiver of the message; if you send a message to self from object C, object C is the receiver of the message. SELF always refers to the object currently executing, even if the method is one whi ch is being inherited.

For example, imagine two objects, A' and B', instances of classes A and B where B inherits from A. A implements instance method, "calculateValue". The "calculateValue" method sends the message "getObjectConstant" to self. If B' gets sent the "calculateValue" message, the method is inherited from class A. When "calculateValue" sends a message "getObjectConstant", the message actually gets sent to B'. If A' were to be sent the "calculateValue" message, then the send to SELF would send the message to A'.

You can use SELF exactly like any data item of type Object Reference, so you can also pass it as a parameter to other methods.

See also Inheritance, message, Object Reference, SELFCLASS, SUPER.

Reserved variable which contains an object handle for the class object for this current object. Enables an instance to send a message to the class object which created it.

You can use SELF exactly like any data item of type Object Reference, so you can also pass it as a parameter to other methods.

See also Inheritance, message, Object Reference, SELF, SUPER.

A synchronization primitive that is used to lock critical sections so that the section is used exclusively by the thread that locked it.
server-side program
The part of an application which runs on a server machine. For Internet applications, this is the program which runs on a Web server and processes end-user input from a form. The terms CGI and CGI program are often used synonymously with the term server-side program. Although CGI is only one of several APIs for creating server-side programs for Web servers, it is the most widely used.
The installation program supplied with this COBOL system.
shared run-time system
Applications linked to use the shared run-time system do not have the run-time support code contained in the executable files. Instead, code is included to call the run-time modules contained in the shared run-time system.

See also static linked run-time system.

shortcut key
A keystroke (such as Ctrl+F4) which you can use to perform a specified function.
The way components communicate. When a component sends a signal, it is received by all components connected to the sender. The receiving component only acts on the signal if it has an input socket and method defined for that signal. A component which sends a signal event when there are no components connected does not cause a run-time error.

Contrast with a message, which is sent to a single specific object. if the object does not understand the message it raises a run-time exception.

See also component, message, input socket.

simple list box
A text box that contains a list of objects or settings from which you make selections.

See also selection list box.

See click.
sizable border
The border surrounding a window that can be used to change the height or width of a window.
The part of the scroll bar that shows the position of the contents of the current window in the file. Moving the slider changes the content of the current window.
See input socket.
source code
The COBOL code that makes up the program. This can consist of one or more text files.
special operation code
An operation code identified by the hexadecimal code x"00" in the most significant byte, followed by two characters which specify the exact operation.

See operation code.

spin button
An object used to display a sequence of mutually exclusive choices. You change the value by spinning through the range of choices.
standalone executable
An executable file that can be shipped and run without any additional files, such subprograms or run-time support modules. It is a statically linked executable that uses the static-linked run-time; therefore all the subprograms and run-time support modules are actually contained within the executable file.
standard operating code
An operation code identified by the hexadecimal code x"FA" in the most significant byte, followed by two characters which specify the exact operation.

See operation code.

static linking
Linking a subprogram so that it is loaded into memory at the same time as the program that calls it. Usually, this means that all programs needed by the application are included in one executable file.

See also dynamic linking.

static linked run-time system
The run-time system that, when used for creating applications, produces executable files containing all the run-time support they need without the need for other files.

See also shared run-time system.

status bar
A control consisting of a number of recessed static text fields that are used to display status information, such as whether the Caps Lock key is pressed, or the current position of the cursor in a file. The status bar is usually displayed along the bottom of a window or dialog box.
stored procedure
A block of code that is stored in an SQL database and can be called by applications. In some systems the code is written in an extended SQL dialect, in others it is written in a standard programming language and contains Embedded SQL. Stored procedures are used for one or more of the following reasons: to improve performance; to provide greater security; or to improve managability.
The length of a single element in a table or array.
A class descended from another one, inheriting its methods and data. In the Class Library supplied with Object COBOL all class are ultimately subclasses of Base.
substitution marker
A text literal which is replaced by the contents of a data item at run-time. For example, EHTML uses substitution markers in the format dataname to insert data into HTML pages output by COBOL programs.
Reserved word which behaves like an object reference when used in an INVOKE statement. Like SELF, it enables an object to send a message to itself, but the search for a matching method starts in the code of the method's superclass.

If used from an instance, the OO RTS searches for a method beginning with the instance code of the superclass, and works its way up through the instance methods of all the superclasses until it finds a method matching the message. If used from a class method, the OO RTS searches for a class method beginning with the class object code of the superclass and works its way up through the class methods of all the superclasses until it finds a method matching the message.

Unlike SELF, and SELFCLASS, SUPER is not a data item containing an object handle; you can't pass SUPER as a parameter to a method.

See also Inheritance, message, Object Reference, SELF, SELFCLASS.

The parent of a class. Every class has a single superclass immediately above it in the inheritance hierarchy, with the exception of those at the top of the hierarchy. In the supplied Class Library there is only one root class, Base, from which all other classes are descended.
A parameter you can pass to the run-time system to control the behavior of your program at run time. There are two types of switch: run-time and programmable.
symbolic name
An identifier that you can use in your code as a label to enable the development system to identify a specific data item, graphical object, or entry point. Symbolic names are cross-referenced to numbers; it is the number that is actually used by the development system. The name exists solely for the programmer's convenience. Symbolic names are sometimes referred to as symbols.
synchronization primitives
Methods by which the threads in a multi-threaded application can be synchronized. You can synchronize threads using a mutex, monitor, semaphore or event.
An object which enables you to store objects against symbols. Used for sending data with signals as a SymbolTable enables the sender of a signal to package up several different data items into one object, which can then be unpackaged by the receivers of the signal. For example, the sender of an "open-file" signal could include the name of the file, and the filepath in a SymbolTable, against symbols z"filename" and z"filepath". Symbols are null-terminated strings, up to 32 characters long.
system executable code
Executable code in an industry standard native code format. It is used for the main or trigger program of an application. You create it by linking an .obj file. System executable code is stored in a system executable file.
system executable file
A file containing system executable code. You create it by linking an .obj file. A system executable file has the extension .exe, and is often referred to as an .exe file.
system menu
The operating system menu, which appears on a primary window when you push the system menu button in the top left corner of the Title bar. Typically contains choices for restoring, moving, sizing, minimizing, maximizing and closing the window.
system menu button
A button labeled with a bitmap, appearing at the top left corner of the window. Pushing the button drops down the system menu.


tab control
A control that looks like a tabbed index card and is used to select a dialog box or set of controls from a group of related dialog boxes or sets of controls. Tab controls are typically used on property sheets.
A position marker in a source file viewed with the COBOL Development Environment.


A control word embedded in on-line help source files. It defines how the file and topics are created. Some of the tags are used to define structures in the text so that the text can be reformatted dynamically in the display window.

text control
A text string that appears on a dialog box. Because the user cannot do anything with the control, it is also known as a static text control.
text file
A file containing ASCII text created by any standard editor. Such text files can contain, for example, COBOL source code or Compiler directives. COBOL programs can read or write such files by specifying ORGANIZATION LINE SEQUENTIAL.
In a non-multi-threading environment, a main COBOL program and all the programs or subprograms called by it, directly or indirectly.

In a multi-threading environment, a strand of execution within a process. If many threads can execute simultaneously within a process, then the program is said to be multi-threading.

thread handle
Used to identify a thread to the run-time system. The thread handle is a unique value that can also be used to identify a thread to certain multi-threading library routines.
Code that is used to convert calls to one interface into calls to another.
Converting calls to one interface into calls to another by means of thunk code.

See also thunk.

title bar
The bar across the top of a window that contains the title of the window, the system menu icon and minimize, maximize and restore buttons (if appropriate).
A means of changing the state of a checkmark option. Clicking on the option toggles between the two states of the option and turns the checkmark on and off appropriately.
A set of pushbuttons labeled with icons representing application commands.
tool tip
A text label displayed next to a toolbar button whenever the mouse cursor is over the button. Toolbar buttons are always mapped to menu items, so if a menu hint is defined for the associa ted menu item, this is also displayed in the status bar.
Section of an on-line help file. A topic is the single entity which is displayed in a window. All of the topic can be seen by scrolling or paging. A subject can contain several topics using hotspots to cross-reference each other.
Every topic has at least one name attached to it. Local topic-names are used internally to reference the topic. These are converted to context numbers. External topic-names are held in a tree structure in the on-line help file. When a topic-name is used in a search or on entry to the On-line Help Viewer, the tree is searched for the name.
track bar
A control that consists of a slider track and slider button, used to set values that exist in a continuous range. A typical use is for a volume control, or to set a position from which to play a multimedia file.
tree root
The node to which all other nodes are directly or indirectly attached. It is the start of a program.
tree view
A control that displays an expandable hierarchical structure of text, icons or bitmaps. A typical use would be to show the structure of a file system, with icons representing individual files at the leaves of the tree.
trigger program
An executable that is used to start an application. Also known as the main executable or the root executable.


Uniform Resource Locator (URL)
Describes the location of a piece of information on the Internet, or an intranet. For example, the URL for the Micro Focus Enterprise Client Server Solution page is:

The first part of the URL, http, specifies the protocol used for transferring the information from the Web server (in this case the Hypertext Transfer Protocol). The second part of the URL,, is the domain name of the Web server, uniquely identifying it on the Internet. The last part of the URL, /Solutions/Enterprise/index.html, is the path and filename of a specific resource on the server. URLs can point to HTML pages, server-side programs, or files to download from the server to the client.

up/down control
A control that consists of two small arrow push buttons, and that can be used to increment or decrement a value in an adjacent buddy window. Up/down controls are also called spin buttons.
user-supplied compression routine
A user-written routine used to carry out data compression. The routine is stored in a module called USRDCnn. You can specify up to 127 such routines.

See also compression routine and Micro Focus compression routine.


vertical scroll bar
See scroll bar.
A Net Express utility that runs on the mainframe. The utility reads a mainframe file with variable length records and writes a file in which the record length is stored with each record. That file is then transferred to the PC and used to recreate the original file.
A Net Express utility that runs on the mainframe. The utility reads an uploaded PC file in which the record length is stored with each record, and writes a mainframe file with variable length records.


Web browser
A program used to view material prepared for the World Wide Web. Browsers are able to interpret URLs and HTML markup, and also understand several Internet protocols.
The person responsible for a particular Web server or Web site.
Web server
A networked machine that responds to requests from a client, in this case a Web Browser.
Web site
A Web server containing all your HTML documents, CGI programs etc.
A character that can be used in a file-name in certain contexts; any character is considered to match the wildcard character, so that all files whose names match the rest of the string will be selected.
widow subtree
A procedure that is never entered; its existence means your program is badly structured.
An area of the screen with visible boundaries, on which information is displayed. A window can be the same size as or smaller than the screen.
window border
See border.
window class
In API programming, the name associated with a specific window procedure. Many individual windows can share the same window procedure if they are all instances of the same window class.
window procedure
In API programming, a piece of code associated with a specific type of window that controls the window and processes all messages destined for the window. Window procedure is often abbreviated to winproc.
Windows NT File System
An optional file-handling system in Windows NT. When you use it file access is very efficient, and file-names are not restricted to those consisting of 8-character basename, period, and 3-character extension. Your disk must be specially formatted to use NTFS.
window title bar
See title bar.
See window procedure.
World Wide Web (WWW)
A collection of linked hypermedia documents that can contain text, images, sounds and moving pictures, placed there by organizations and individuals who are connected to the Web.
World Wide Web Consortium(W3C)
An industry consortium that seeks to promote standards for the evolution of the World Wide Web and interoperability between WWW products by producing specifications and reference software.


zip file
A file stored in compressed form by the Pkzip utility. Its default extension is .zip. A zip file can contain many normal files. They are extracted ("unzipped") by the Pkunzip utility.