Copyright © 1999 MERANT International Limited. All rights
This document and the proprietary marks and names used herein are protected by international law.
MERANT has made every effort to ensure that this manual is correct and accurate, but reserves the right to make changes without notice at its sole discretion at any time.
The software described in this document is supplied under a license and may be used or copied only in accordance with the terms of such license, and in particular any warranty of fitness of MERANT products for any particular purpose is expressly excluded and in no event will MERANT be liable for any consequential loss.
Micro Focus® and Animator® are registered trademarks, and CCI, Fileshare, Micro Focus COBOL, Micro Focus COBOL/2, Object COBOL, Professional COBOL, RTE, Screens and XM are trademarks of MERANT International Limited
Borland® is a registered trademark of Borland International, Inc
BRIEF® is a registered trademark of UnderWare, Inc
Btrieve® is a registered trademark of Btrieve Technologies, Inc
C-ISAM is a trademark of Informix Software, Inc
Data General® is a registered trademark of Data General Corporation
Digital is a trademark of Digital Equipment Corporation
Digital Research® is a registered trademark of Digital Research, Inc
IBM®, AIX®, OS/2® and PC® are registered trademarks, and CICS and Presentation Manager are trademarks of International Business Machines Corporation
Informix® is a registered trademark of Informix Software, Inc
Intel® is a registered trademark of Intel Corporation
Lattice® is a registered trademark of Lattice, Inc
Microsoft® and CodeView® are registered trademarks, NT, Visual Basic, Visual C++, Win32, Windows and Windows NT are trademarks of Microsoft Corporation
Open Software Foundation is a trademark of Open Software Foundation
RM/COBOL® and Ryan-McFarland® are registered trademarks of Ryan-McFarland Corporation
SCO is a trademark of The Santa Cruz Operation, Inc
UNIX® and X/Open® are registered trademarks of X/Open Company Limited
Copyright© 1999 Micro Focus Limited
All Rights Reserved
The Micro Focus Object COBOL Programmer's Guides are complete guides to specific areas of the Micro Focus COBOL systems.
This guide contains general information about writing programs, not specifically covered by one of the other guides, that will help you write better applications. This includes information about making your applications portable, and interfacing with other languages.
You should be familiar with the COBOL language and with your operating system. You should read the Getting Started book for this COBOL system and be familiar with the COBOL development cycle described in the User Guide before reading other books in the book set.
Micro Focus COBOL systems are available for DOS, Windows, Windows 95, Windows NT, and OS/2 V2.1 or later, and for many varieties of UNIX. Both 32-bit and 16-bit versions are available (16-bit is not available on UNIX.)
Some of the books supplied with this COBOL system are generic across all these environments. Other books are specific to your operating system, but might contain some generic chapters. The chapter Welcome! in your Getting Started book explains this in detail.
In the books, unless otherwise stated:
In a generic book or chapter, text that does not apply to all supported environments and COBOL systems is marked by a side heading in the left margin. A side heading applies to the paragraph it is next to, unless it is next to the first paragraph in a section, in which case it applies to that whole section.
The following examples of side headings show what they mean:
This text applies to the 32-bit COBOL system on UNIX.
DOS, Windows and OS/2:
This text applies to the 16-bit or 32-bit COBOL system on DOS, Windows, Windows 95, Windows NT, and OS/2 V2.1 or later.
This text applies to the 16-bit COBOL system on DOS, Windows, Windows 95, Windows NT, and OS/2 V2.1 or later.
This text applies to the 32-bit COBOL system on UNIX, Windows 95, Windows NT, and OS/2 V2.1 or later.
32-bit for Windows NT and OS/2:
This text applies to the 32-bit COBOL system on Windows 95, Windows NT, and OS/2 V2.1 or later.
The notation used in the books is as follows:
The notation used to describe the format of command lines is as follows:
DOS, Windows and OS/2:
On DOS, Windows and OS/2 you can type them in upper, lower, or mixed case except where otherwise stated.
On UNIX you must type them in upper or lower case as shown.
This book is divided into several parts, as follows:
Descriptions for all of the call-by-name routines appear alphabetically. Each description contains the routine name and function and the following entries (as appropriate):
|Syntax:||Shows the CALL statement you could use to call the
The optional RETURNING clause is also shown. Every routine returns a value showing the result of the operation. Unless otherwise indicated, zero indicates success, nonzero indicates failure. This value is left in the data item specified in the RETURNING clause, in this reference, status-code. If this clause is omitted, the value is left in the special register RETURN-CODE. (If call-convention bit two is set, RETURN-CODE is not changed.)
status-code must be a numeric data item capable of holding positive values from 0 to 65535; for example, PIC X(2) COMP-5.
The name of the routine must be coded in upper case.
|Parameters:||Describes any parameters shown in the RETURNING and USING clause. A parameter enclosed in brackets, for example, [parameter1] is optional and might not be needed for all forms of the routine.|
|On Entry:||Indicates which of the parameters shown are passed on entry.|
|On Exit:||Indicates which of the parameters shown are returned
Where bits of one or more bytes are referenced, bit 0 is the least significant (rightmost) bit.
|Comments:||Provides any additional information necessary for the successful use of the routine.|
Lists other related topics.