Data Types - in COBOL and C# and VB.NET

Value Types
byte, sbyte
short, ushort, int, uint, long, ulong
float, double
DateTime   (a framework type)

Reference Types

bool correct = true;
// Can also infer variable type if the value has a well-defined type
var incorrect = false; // automatically a bool
byte b = 0x2A;   // hex
// no support for octal literals
// no support for binary literals
object person = null;
string name = "Dwight";
char grade = 'B';
DateTime now = DateTime.Now;
// No support for date/time literals
decimal amount = 35.99m;
float gpa = 2.9f;
double pi = 3.14159265;
long lTotal = 123456L;
short sTotal = 123;
ushort usTotal = 123;
uint uiTotal = 123;
ulong ulTotal = 123;

Type Information
int x;
Console.WriteLine(x.GetType());        // Prints System.Int32
Console.WriteLine(typeof(int));        // Prints System.Int32
Console.WriteLine(x.GetType().Name);   // prints Int32
Type Conversion
float d = 3.5f;
int i = (int)d;   // set to 3  (truncates decimal)
*>Value Types
*>binary-char (unsigned)
*>binary-short, binary-long, binary-double (unsigned)
*>float-short, float-long
*>DateTime (a framework type)

*>Reference types

declare correct as condition-value = true
*> Can also infer variable type if the value has a well-defined type
declare incorrect = false  *> automatically a condition-value
declare b as byte = h"2a"  *> hex
declare o as byte = o"52"  *> octal
declare b2 as byte = b"101010" *> binary
declare person as object = null
declare nam as string = "Dwight"
declare grade as character = "B"
declare now as type DateTime = type DateTime::Now
*> No support for date/time literals
declare amount as decimal = 35.99
declare gpa as float-short = 2.9
declare pi as float-long = 3.14159265
declare lTotal as binary-double = 123456
declare sTotal as binary-short = 123
declare usTotal as binary-short unsigned = 123
declare uiTotal as binary-long = 123
declare ulTotal as binary-long unsigned = 123

*>Type Information
declare x as binary-long
display x::GetType            *> Prints System.Int32
display type of binary-long   *> Prints System.Int32
display x::GetType::Name      *> Prints Int32
*>Type Conversion
declare f as float-short = 3.5   *> automatic conversion
declare i = f as binary-long     *> set to 3 (truncates decimal)

end program.

program-id Legacy.
*> COBOL types not supported directly by other languages.
*> Visual COBOL supports these types on all platforms.
*> Only a few examples here
01 displayNumber pic 9(9).99.
01 computeNumber pic 9(9)V99.
01 alphaNumberic pic a(23).
01 binaryStorage pic x(12).
*> Also groups and redefines - a few examples
01 arecord.
   03 aSubRecord pic x(10).
   03 aUnion     pic 9(10) redefines aSubrecord.
end program.
Value Types
Byte, SByte
Short, UShort, Integer, UInteger, Long, ULong
Single, Double

Reference Types

Dim correct As Boolean = True
' No mechanism for automatic typing
Dim b As Byte = &H2A   'hex
Dim o As Byte = &O52   'octal
' No support for binary literals
Dim person As Object = Nothing
Dim name As String = "Dwight"
Dim grade As Char = "B"c
Dim now As Date = Datetime.Now
Dim past As Date = #12/31/2007 12:15:00 PM#
Dim amount As Decimal = 35.99@
Dim gpa As Single = 2.9!
Dim pi As Double = 3.14159265
Dim lTotal As Long = 123456L
Dim sTotal As Short = 123S
Dim usTotal As UShort = 123US
Dim uiTotal As UInteger = 123UI
Dim ulTotal As ULong = 123UL

Type Information
Dim x As Integer
Console.WriteLine(x.GetType())        ' Prints System.Int32
Console.WriteLine(GetType(Integer))   ' Prints System.Int32
Console.WriteLine(TypeName(x))        ' Prints Integer
Type Conversion
Dim d As Single = 3.5
Dim i As Integer = CType(d, Integer)   ' set to 4 (Banker's rounding)
i = CInt(d)   ' same result as CType
i = Int(d)    ' set to 3 (Int function truncates the decimal)